Hilfe:Templates (Vorlagen)

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Wenn Sie Standardtexte haben, die Sie auf verschiedenen Seiten einbinden möchten, kommt die Funktionalität von einem Template bei MediaWiki ins Spiel. Anders als Erweiterungen und Mediendateien gibt es keine zentrale Quelle für Templates. Templates können neu geschrieben oder, um doppelte Arbeit zu sparen, von einem anderen Wiki wie z.B. Wikipedia exportiert und dann im Zielwiki importiert werden.

Erstellen

Templates sind Standard-Wiki-Seiten, deren Inhalt so konzipiert ist, dass er in andere Seiten transkludiert (eingebunden) werden kann. Templates folgen einer Konvention, laut welcher dem Namen das Präfix "Template:" vorangestellt wird, um sie diesem Namensraum zuzuweisen; abgesehen davon können sie wie jede andere Wiki-Seite erstellt werden.

Die einfachste Verwendung von Templates sieht folgendermaßen aus. Wenn Sie eine Seite mit dem Namen "Template:Welcome" erstellen, mit dem folgenden Inhalt:

Hallo! Willkommen in diesem Wiki.

hat man bereits die erste Vorlage erstellt! Wenn man nun den Code

{{Willkommen}}

in irgendeiner anderen Seite einfügt, wird auf dieser Seite der Text "Hallo! Willkommen in diesem Wiki." anstatt {{Willkommen}} erscheinen. Der Vorlageninhalt wurde somit in die andere Seite übernommen, d.h., er wird in diese Seite integriert.

Man kann nun {{Willkommen}} an einem beliebigen Punkt auf jeder Seite, wo man jemanden begrüßen möchte, einfügen. Nehmen wir an, die Vorlage wird auf 100 Seiten verwendet. Wenn man dann den Vorlageninhalt ändert zu:

Hallo! Willkommen in diesem wundervollen Wiki.

und eine der 100 Seiten, in der die Vorlage verwendet wurde, erneut besucht, wird man den neuen Text anstelle des ursprünglichen sehen. Auf diese Weise kann man die Inhalte von 100 Seiten ändern, ohne diese bearbeitet zu haben - und das nur, weil die Vorlage in diese Seiten eingebunden ist.

Dies ist die grundsätzliche Funktionsweise. Es gibt viele zusätzliche Funktionen, die diese Funktionsweise erweitern und die Verwendung von Vorlagen sehr nützlich machen.

Verwendung

Templates können in anderen Seiten auf diese Weise verwendet werden:

  • {{Name}} – wie oben beschrieben wird der Link automatisch durch den Inhalt von "[[Template:Name]]" zu dem Zeitpunkt ersetzt, an dem die Seite mit dem Template-Link aufgerufen wird. Der Link bleibt im Quellcode der Seite unverändert.
  • {{subst:Name}} — wenn man diesen Template-Link verwendet, wird er ab dem Zeitpunkt, an dem die Seite mit dem Link gespeichert wird, endgültig durch den Inhalt von [[Template:Name]] ersetzt: eine Kopie des Inhalts von [[Template:Name]] wird durch den Template-Link ersetzt. Der Inhalt ist dann ein Teil der einschließenden Seite und kann normal, getrennt vom Original, bearbeitet werden. Hinweis: Spätere Änderungen am Ursprung der Template-Seite werden nicht auf die Seite mit dem Template-Link übertragen.
  • {{safesubst:Name}} — dies wurde eingeführt, um das Ersetzen zu ermöglichen, ohne die Transklusion zu unterbrechen, siehe w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{msgnw:Name}} wenn die Datei, die diese Anweisung enthält, aufgerufen wird, wird die Vorlage so eingefügt, dass ihr Inhalt als rohe Wikisyntax angezeigt wird, genauso, wie es ‎<nowiki> tut.

Jede Wikiseite kann als Vorlage verwendet werden, einfach indem man den Namensbereich angibt, dem sie zugehört.

  • {{Template:Pagename}} bindet [[Template:Pagename]] ein.
  • {{Talk:Pagename}} bindet [[Talk:Pagename]] ein
  • {{:Pagename}} schließt [[Pagename]] ein
    • {{subst::Pagename}} ersetzt sich selbst mit dem Inhalt von [[Pagename]]

Wenn kein solcher Namensbereich vorhanden ist, wird der vollständige Name als Vorlagenname angenommen.

  • {{Foo:Bar}} bindet [[Template:Foo:Bar]] ein

Parameter

Um die Funktionalität von Templates zu erweitern erlaubt es MediaWiki, Parameter an die Vorlage zu übergeben, wenn sie eingebunden wird. Parameter ermöglichen es dem Template, unterschiedliche Inhalte zu erzeugen oder sich unterschiedlich zu verhalten.

Angenommen, Sie möchten auf der Talk-Seite anderer Benutzer ein kleines Dankeschön einfügen, wie z. B.:


Ein kleines Dankeschön... für für all Ihre Bemühungen. Grüße, Ich


Die Dankesnote wird einen Grund (in diesem Fall, für all deine Bemühungen) und eine Unterschrift (Ich) enthalten. Ihr Ziel ist es, dass jeder Benutzer jedem anderen Benutzer danken kann, aus einem beliebigen Grund.

Damit die Notiz überall, wo sie verwendet wird, ähnlich aussieht, kann beispielsweise eine Vorlage namens Template:Thankyou definiert werden. Obwohl die Notiz überall, wo sie verwendet wird, ähnlich aussehen soll, wenn ein User einem anderen dankt, wird der genaue Inhalt (d.h. der Grund un die Signatur) unterschiedlich sein. Aus diesem Grund sollten diese als Parameter übergeben werden. Wenn wir die verbleibenden Elemente zur Formatierung der Box und zum Platzieren des Bildes ignorieren, lautet der Kerninhalt der Vorlage wie folgt:

'''Ein kleines Dankeschön...'''
für {{{1}}}.
Grüße, {{{2}}}

Die Verwendung von {{{1}}} und {{{2}}} muss beachtet werden. Auf diese Weise können innerhalb von Vorlagen die Parameter identifiziert werden, die bei der Verwendung der Vorlage angegeben werden. Beachten Sie, dass jeder Parameter der Vorlage von drei Klammern umgeben ist: {{{ }}}. Dies unterscheidet sich von der normalen Verwendung des Namens der Vorlage.

Bei der Verwendung einer Vorlage auf einer Seite werden die Parameterwerte durch ein "Pipe"-Zeichen getrennt (|). MediaWiki erlaubt Parameter auf drei Arten an Vorlagen zu übergeben: Anonym, nummeriert und benannt.

Anonyme Parameter

Um anonyme Parameter zu übergeben, müssen die Werte der Parameter der Reihe nach aufgelistet werden:

{{Thankyou/de|ihre Bemühungen|Ich}}

In diesem Fall erhält die Vorlage {{Thankyou/de}} die Parameter {{{1}}}=ihre Bemühungen und {{{2}}}=Ich, was folgendes erzeugt:

A little thank you... for all your effort. hugs, Me

Die Reihenfolge, in der anonyme Parameter übergeben werden, ist entscheidend für ihr Verhalten. Das Tauschen der Parameter wie folgendend:

{{Thankyou|Me|all your effort}}

würde dieses Ergebnis erzeugen:

A little thank you... for Me. hugs, all your effort

Identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc.) works only with anonymous parameters. Any parameters identified by name, as shown below, will not be accessible to the template using ordinal numbers.
If an equal sign appears inside the argument to an anonymous template parameter, that parameter may be misinterpreted as a named parameter (which is explained below in this document) treating the text before the equal sign as the parameter name and the text after it as the argument value. This is a common problem when you need to include an external link, or an HTML element with attributes (see task T16235). The workaround is to use named parameters instead, or even numbered parameters as explained in the following section.

Numbered parameters

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Me|1=your friendship}}

This time, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{1}}}=your friendship and {{{2}}}=Me, though they have been supplied in inverse order, and produces:

A little thank you... for your friendship. hugs, Me

This may also be useful when any of the numbered parameters contains an "=" sign.
Examples:
<span lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr">{{Thankyou|1=adding “=”|2=Me}}</span>

produces:

A little thank you... for adding “=”. hugs, Me

  Warning: This also requires numbering each other parameter.

Named parameters

The third way of passing parameters is by name instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason}}}.
hugs, {{{signature}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

A little thank you... for being who you are. hugs, Me

Named parameters are case-sensitive, so:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|Reason=being who you are|reason=being case-sensitive}}

produces:

A little thank you... for being case-sensitive. hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

Default values

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide their arguments, in this way:

{{Thankyou}}

in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:


A little thank you... for {{{1}}}. hugs, {{{2}}}


Since no arguments were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no argument is provided for parameter {{{reason}}}, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any argument results in the following:

A little thank you... for everything. hugs, Me

The value of a parameter can be an empty string. For example, in {{foo|bar=}} or {{foo|bar=|baz=qux}}, the foo template considers the bar parameter to be "". This is different from omitting the parameter altogether, which leaves it undefined and triggers the default value mechanism described above.

Often default values are used to specify alternate names of parameters. For example, if you have {{{a|{{{b|}}} }}}, the template will first look for a parameter named "a". If it is not set, it will use the parameter named "b". If neither "a" nor "b" is set, it will output nothing.

Evaluation

This is an advanced topic which you can skip unless you need it.

Generally speaking, template parameters are substituted into the template after tokenization, but as is. They are not evaluated until they are used.

This has a few consequences. First of all, if you have a Template:Start containing {{mytemplate, and a Template:End containing |foo=bar}}, and put {{start}}{{end}} on a page, mytemplate isn't transcluded, because tokens like "|" cannot be added by a template and keep their special meaning in templates. You can still use templates to control the name of a parameter or template, but you cannot split a template call amongst multiple templates.

The second consequence of this is dead-code elimination. If you make a template call like {{foo|{{DISPLAYTITLE:Bar}} }}, and Template:Foo does not contain {{{1}}}, then the displaytitle is not used, since it is only evaluated when needed, and it there is no parameter to substitute it into, so it is never evaluated. This usually comes into play when using Extension:ParserFunctions, and can be especially noticed when used in combination with the int: magic word that varies by user language.

Template calls starting with the magic word subst: or safesubst: are evaluated in a separate first pass that only happens at save time, along with ~~~~ and links using the pipe trick. If they cannot be evaluated during the first pass, subst: calls are ignored, and safesubst: are treated as if a normal template.

Many but not all parser functions, parser tags and trancluded special pages are not directly included like templates but instead are replaced by a "strip marker". This means you cannot manipulate the results with parser functions like padleft: or similar functions from extensions, as they see the strip marker instead of the result of the parser function.

Recursion in templates

Including a template in itself won't throw MediaWiki into infinite recursion. MediaWiki will stop the recursion with the template's name in bold. For example, if the content of Template:Aaaa is a {{Aaaa}} z, it'll display "a a Template loop detected: Template:Aaaa z z".

Forbidden idiom

This safeguard precludes a potentially useful template idiom where a template self-normalizes its own calling arguments. In this forbidden example template:d can either be called {{d|20200311}} or {{d|y=2020|m=3|d=11}}. If called in the first manner, it recurses into itself with the second argument structure (obtained using string parser functions), which then follows a unified processing path.

{{#if:{{{1|}}}|{{d|y={{#sub:{{{1}}}|0|4}}|m={{#sub:{{{1}}}|4|2}}|d={{#sub:{{{1}}}|6|2}}}}|<!-- processing path with arguments y,m,d regardless of original call pattern -->}}

If template:d is modified to recurse into template:d/2 and template:d/2 is an identical manual copy of template:d this idiom works fine as the self-recursion safeguard operates dynamically and not statically.

A feasible way for the MediaWiki software to loosen the self-recursion rule would be to require that each recursive call have a distinct argument count from all previous active calls, at most once recursing with the argument count non-decreasing. That would provide a strong guarantee against infinite self-recursion while enabling useful idioms such as the one described here in a flexible manner.

If the processing path is of low complexity, a simple solution using only one template is to handle each calling convention on a separate if/else branch, duplicating the logic of the processing path within each case. If the processing path is more complex, each call-structure case can delegate to an implementation template with a unified call structure which provides the final template behaviour.

Tables in parameters

Since the syntax for wikitables involves pipes in single braces ({ }) and using the pipe trick will not work in transclusion parameters, one will have to create a table as a separate page and transclude it from there.

Control template inclusion

By default, a template's content is displayed in its entirety, both when viewed directly and when included in another page. However, you can control which parts of a template will be seen and included by the use of the ‎<noinclude>, ‎<includeonly> and ‎<onlyinclude> tags.

Anything between ‎<noinclude> and ‎</noinclude> will be seen only when the template's page is being viewed directly, but not when it is included in another page. This is useful when you want to include text or code in a template that you do not want to propagate to any pages which include it, such as:

  • Category links when categorizing the template itself
  • Explanatory text about how to use the template

Likewise, anything between ‎<includeonly> and ‎</includeonly> will be processed and displayed only when the page is being included, but not when the template page is being viewed directly, and is useful in situations such as:

  • Categorizing pages which include the template. Note: when changing the categories applied by a template in this fashion, the categorization of the pages which include that template may not be updated until some time later: this is handled by the job queue . To force the re-categorization of a particular page, open that page for editing and save it without changes.
  • Ensuring that the template's code is not executed when viewing the template page itself. Typically this is because it expects parameters, and its execution without parameters has an undesired result.

Everything outside ‎<noinclude> and ‎<includeonly> is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page. The focus is on what is inside these two tags.

Everything outside ‎<onlyinclude> tags is discarded in the transclusion. Even sections tagged includeonly are discarded in the transclusion unless they are also tagged as onlyinclude. The focus is on what is outside this tag.

Nesting of these tags is also possible.

The three partial transclusion tags enable all possible combinations of what is processed and rendered. Comments also fill a role.

Organizing templates

For templates to be effective, users need to find them, and find out how to use them.

To find them, users can:

  1. Click Spezialseiten > Alle Seiten
  2. In the Namensraum: list, choose Template and click Anwenden.

To give usage information, include an example like this one on the template page:

<noinclude>
== Usage ==
Welcome users:
{{Thankyou|reason=your reason|signature=your signature}}
</noinclude>

Then, an editor can simply copy and paste the example to use the template.

Linking to a template

A template page can be linked to like any other wiki page. For example, the link Template:Navbar is generated using the wikicode [[Template:Navbar]].

On many wikis, Template:Tl can be used to provide a link to a template formatted in a way that shows the "double curly-braces" wikicode necessary to transclude the template without actually doing the tranclusion. For example, the code {{tl|Navbar}} may be used to create the link {{Navbar}}.

This construct is commonly used when referring to templates in template documentation, on help pages, and on talk pages. The same effect can be achieved by using {{[[Template:Navbar|Navbar]]}}, but the {{tl}} approach involves much less typing. On any given wiki the Tl template, if it exists, may or may not render the text in a "code" element or as monospace type. If not (as on this wiki), another similarly named template may do so. See, for example, the "See also" section of our Template:Tl documentation.

Copying from one wiki to another

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

MediaWiki code

If you have import rights (specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Select the box "Inklusive Vorlagen".
    • Select the box "Nur die aktuelle Version der Seite exportieren".
    • Click "Seiten exportieren".
  1. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates. Note that only page elements parsed in rendering the page get exported, consequently documentation subpages are not exported as part of this process. If it doesn't work also check for red links listed under "Pages transcluded onto the current version of this page:", below the edit box. If there are any repeat the above steps for these as well and also copy the code in the modules.

After successfully importing the template and all its linked templates from the other wiki, edit it to change customisations to suit your wiki. For example to change a logo, remove redundant categories or red links.

Extensions

An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page Extension:ParserFunctions and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the Erweiterung:ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

CSS and JavaScript code

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy those classes to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  1. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

Siehe auch

General template usage

  • m:Help:Template – much more thorough manual on how exactly templates function
  • m:Help:Advanced templates – describes even more advanced techniques such as dynamic template calls and variable parameter names

Special constructs used in templates

Other relevant information

Externe Links