Manual:拡張機能の開発

This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Developing extensions and the translation is 39% complete.
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MediaWiki 拡張機能

拡張機能は、3つの部分からなります:

  1. セットアップ
  2. 実行
  3. 地域化

最小限の拡張機能は、以下の構造で構成されます:

MyExtension/extension.json
セットアップの指示を格納するファイルです。 ファイル名は必ずextension.jsonにします。 (MediaWiki 1.25以前では、セットアップの指示は拡張機能から名前を取った MyExtension/MyExtension.php ファイル内に記述されていました。 依然として拡張機能の多くには、このPHPファイルに下位互換性のあるシム (shim) があります。)
MyExtension/includes/
拡張機能のための PHP 実行コードを格納します。;
MyExtension/resources/
Stores the client-side resources such as JavaScript, CSS and LESS for the extension.
MyExtension/i18n/*.json
これは拡張機能の地域化に関わる情報を格納したページです。

拡張機能の開発時には上記のMyExtensionの代わりにご利用の拡張機能名を記入します。 ディレクトリ名とPHP名はアッパーキャメルケースにします。これは標準的なファイル命名規約に準じています。[1] (ご利用の拡張機能の処理の導入としてはBoilerPlate extensionが適しています。)

開発段階ではシステムメッセージその他の変更が表示されないよう、$wgMainCacheType = CACHE_NONE$wgCacheDirectory = falseを設定してキャッシュを回避することができます。

セットアップ

Your goal in writing the setup portion is to make installing the extension as easy as possible, so users only have to add this line to LocalSettings.php:

wfLoadExtension( 'MyExtension' );

ユーザーが拡張機能を設定変更できるようにするには設定パラメータの設定と説明文書作成が必要で、ユーザ設定はたとえば下記の例のようになります。

wfLoadExtension( 'MyExtension' );
$wgMyExtensionConfigThis = 1;
$wgMyExtensionConfigThat = false;

ここまで単純化するには、セットアップファイルに数件のタスクを行います (詳細は下記の説で説明します)。

  • 拡張機能が使用するメディアハンドラ、パーサ関数特別ページカスタムXMLタグ変数をすべて登録。
  • 拡張機能用に定義した設定変数を定義と/もしくは検証。
  • 拡張機能のオートロード用に使用するクラスの準備。
  • セットアップ部分で、至急実行すべき部分と、MediaWikiコアの初期化と設定の終了後まで待つべき部分を定義する。
  • 必要なその他のフックの定義
  • 必要なデータベーステーブルの作成もしくは検証。
  • 拡張機能の地域化のための設定。

MediaWikiに拡張機能を登録する

MediaWikiのSpecial:Versionページには、インストールされた拡張機能をすべて一覧にしてあります。 たとえばこのウィキにインストールされた拡張機能はすべて、Special:Versionで参照できます。

MediaWiki バージョン: 1.25

To do this, add the extension details to extension.json. The entry will look something like this:

{
	"name": "Example",
	"author": "John Doe",
	"url": "https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Example",
	"description": "This extension is an example and performs no discernible function",
	"version": "1.5",
	"license-name": "GPL-2.0-or-later",
	"type": "validextensionclass",
	"manifest_version": 1
}


Many of the fields are optional, but it's still good practice to fill them out. The manifest_version refers to the version of the schema the extension.json file is written against. The available versions are 1 and 2. See here for the documentation on this feature. Unless you need to support an older version of MediaWiki, pick the latest version.

In addition to the above registration, you must also "hook" your feature into MediaWiki. The above only sets up the Special:Version page. The way you do this depends on the type of your extension. For details, please see the documentation for each type of extension:

Making your extension user configurable

If you want your user to be able to configure your extension, you'll need to provide one or more configuration variables. It is a good idea to give those variables a unique name. They should also follow MediaWiki naming conventions (e.g. global variables should begin with $wg).

For example, if your extension is named "MyExtension", you might want to name all your configuration variables to begin with $wgMyExtension. It is important that none of the MediaWiki core begins its variables this way and you have done a reasonable job of checking to see that none of the published extensions begin their variables this way. Users won't take kindly to having to choose between your extension and some other extensions because you chose overlapping variable names.

It is also a good idea to include extensive documentation of any configuration variables in your installation notes.

Here is an example boiler plate that can be used to get started:

{
	"name": "BoilerPlate",
	"version": "0.0.0",
	"author": [
		"Your Name"
	],
	"url": "https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:BoilerPlate",
	"descriptionmsg": "boilerplate-desc",
	"license-name": "GPL-2.0-or-later",
	"type": "other",
	"AutoloadClasses": {
		"BoilerPlateHooks": "includes/BoilerPlateHooks.php",
		"SpecialHelloWorld": "includes/SpecialHelloWorld.php"
	},
	"config": {
		"BoilerPlateEnableFoo": {
			"value": true,
			"description": "Enables the foo functionality"
	},
	"callback": "BoilerPlateHooks::onExtensionLoad",
	"ExtensionMessagesFiles": {
		"BoilerPlateAlias": "BoilerPlate.i18n.alias.php"
	},
	"Hooks": {
		"NameOfHook": "BoilerPlateHooks::onNameOfHook"
	},
	"MessagesDirs": {
		"BoilerPlate": [
			"i18n"
		]
	},
	"ResourceModules": {
		"ext.boilerPlate.foo": {
			"scripts": [
				"resources/ext.boilerPlate.js",
				"resources/ext.boilerPlate.foo.js"
			],
			"styles": [
				"resources/ext.boilerPlate.foo.css"
			]
		}
	},
	"ResourceFileModulePaths": {
		"localBasePath": "",
		"remoteExtPath": "BoilerPlate"
	},
	"SpecialPages": {
		"HelloWorld": "SpecialHelloWorld"
	},
	"manifest_version": 2
}

Note that after calling wfLoadExtension( 'BoilerPlate' ); the global variable $wgBoilerPlateEnableFoo does not exist. If you set the variable, e.g. in LocalSettings.php then the default value given in extension.json will not be used.

For more details on how to use global variable inside custom extensions, please refer to Manual:Configuration for developers .

Preparing classes for autoloading

If you choose to use classes to implement your extension, MediaWiki provides a simplified mechanism for helping PHP find the source file where your class is located. 多くの場合、__autoload($classname)の手順を自作しなくて済みます。

To use MediaWiki's autoloading mechanism, you add entries to the AutoloadClasses field. The key of each entry is the class name; the value is the file that stores the definition of the class. For a simple one class extension, the class is usually given the same name as the extension, so your autoloading section might look like this (extension is named MyExtension):

{
	"AutoloadClasses": {
		"MyExtension": "includes/MyExtension.php"
	}
}

The filename is relative to the directory the extension.json file is in.

For more complex extensions, namespaces should be considered. See Manual:Extension.json/Schema#AutoloadNamespaces for details.

追加的なフックの定義

Manual:フック を参照してください。

データベース テーブルの追加

Make sure the extension doesn't modify the core database tables. Instead, extension should create new tables with foreign keys to the relevant MW tables.

  警告: If your extension is used on any production WMF-hosted wiki please follow the Schema change guide.

If your extension needs to add its own database tables, use the LoadExtensionSchemaUpdates hook. See the manual page for more information on usage.

地域化のセットアップ

関連項目:

Add logs

On MediaWiki, all actions by users on wiki are tracked for transparency and collaboration. See Manual:Special:Logにログを記入する for how to do it.

地域化

While developing, you may want to disable both cache by setting $wgMainCacheType = CACHE_NONE and $wgCacheDirectory = false, otherwise your system message changes may not show up.

If you want your extension to be used on wikis that have a multi-lingual readership, you will need to add localisation support to your extension.

Store messages in <language-key>.json

Store message definitions in a localisation JSON file, one for each language key your extension is translated in. The messages are saved with a message key and the message itself using standard JSON format. Each message id should be lowercase and may not contain spaces. Each key should begin with the lowercased extension name. An example you can find in the MobileFrontend extension. Here is an example of a minimal JSON file (in this case en.json:

en.json

{
	"myextension-desc": "Adds the MyExtension great functionality.",
	"myextension-action-message": "This is a test message"
}

Store message documentation in qqq.json

The documentation for message keys can be stored in the JSON file for the pseudo language with code qqq. A documentation of the example above can be:

qqq.json:

{
	"myextension-desc": "The description of MyExtension used in Extension credits.",
	"myextension-action-message": "Adds 'message' after 'action' triggered by user."
}

地域化ファイルの読み込み

In your extension.json, define the location of your messages files (e.g. in directory i18n/):

{
	"MessagesDirs": {
		"MyExtension": [
			"i18n"
		]
	}
}

PHP での wfMessage の使用

In your setup and implementation code, replace each literal use of the message with a call to wfMessage( $msgID, $param1, $param2, ... ). In classes that implement IContextSource (as well as some others such as subclasses of SpecialPage), you can use $this->msg( $msgID, $param1, $param2, ... ) instead. 例:

wfMessage( 'myextension-addition', '1', '2', '3' )->parse()

JavaScript での mw.message の使用

It's possible to use i18n functions in JavaScript too. 詳細は Manual:メッセージAPI を参照してください。

拡張機能の種類

Extensions can be categorized based on the programming techniques used to achieve their effect. Most complex extensions will use more than one of these techniques:

  • Subclassing: MediaWiki expects certain kinds of extensions to be implemented as subclasses of a MediaWiki-provided base class:
    • 特別ページ – Subclasses of the SpecialPage class are used to build pages whose content is dynamically generated using a combination of the current system state, user input parameters, and database queries. Both reports and data entry forms can be generated. They are used for both reporting and administration purposes.
    • 外装 – Skins change the look and feel of MediaWiki by altering the code that outputs pages by subclassing the MediaWiki class SkinTemplate .
  • フック – A technique for injecting custom PHP code at key points within MediaWiki processing. They are widely used by MediaWiki's parser, its localization engine, its extension management system, and its page maintenance system.
  • タグと関数の関連付け XML style tags that are associated with a php function that outputs HTML code. You do not need to limit yourself to formatting the text inside the tags. You don't even need to display it. Many tag extensions use the text as parameters that guide the generation of HTML that embeds Google objects, data entry forms, RSS feeds, excerpts from selected wiki articles.
  • マジックワード – A technique for mapping a variety of wiki text string to a single id that is associated with a function. Both variables and parser functions use this technique. All text mapped to that id will be replaced with the return value of the function. The mapping between the text strings and the id is stored in the array $magicWords. The interpretation of the id is a somewhat complex process – see Manual:マジックワード for more information.
    • 変数 – Variables are something of a misnomer. They are bits of wikitext that look like templates but have no parameters and have been assigned hard-coded values. Standard wiki markup such as {{PAGENAME}} or {{SITENAME}} are examples of variables. They get their name from the source of their value: a php variable or something that could be assigned to a variable, e.g. a string, a number, an expression, or a function return value.
    • パーサー関数 {{functionname: argument 1 | argument 2 | argument 3...}}. Similar to tag extensions, parser functions process arguments and returns a value. Unlike tag extensions, the result of parser functions is wikitext.
  • API モジュール – you can add custom modules to MediaWiki's action API, that can be invoked by JavaScript, bots or third-party clients.
  • Manual:Page content models – If you need to store data in formats other than wikitext, JSON, etc. then you can create a new Manual:ContentHandler .

Support other core versions

There are two widespread conventions for supporting older versions of MediaWiki core:

  • Master: the master branch of the extension is compatible with as many old versions of core as possible. This results in a maintenance burden (backwards-compatibility hacks need to be kept around for a long time, and changes to the extension need to be tested with several versions of MediaWiki), but sites running old MediaWiki versions benefit from functionality recently added to the extension.
  • Release branches: release branches of the extension are compatible with matching branches of core, e.g. sites using MediaWiki 1.34 need to use the REL1_34 branch of the extension. (For extensions hosted on gerrit, these branches are automatically created when new versions of MediaWiki are released.) This results in cleaner code and faster development but users on old core versions do not benefit from bugfixes and new features unless they are backported manually.

Extension maintainers should declare with the compatibility policy parameter of the {{Extension}} template which convention they follow.

ライセンス

MediaWiki はオープンソース プロジェクトであり、オープンソース イニシアティブ (OSI) 承認済みライセンスの下で任意の MediaWiki extensions GPL-2.0-or-later (ウィキメディアの標準ソフトウェア ライセンス) と互換性のあるものにすることをお勧めします。

Gerrit のプロジェクトには、以下の互換ライセンスのいずれかを採用することをお勧めします:

互換性のあるライセンスを持つ拡張機能の場合、拡張機能の MediaWiki ソース リポジトリへの開発者アクセスを申請できます。 コード内で「license-name」でライセンスを指定するには、短い名前を提供するために、spdx.orgの識別子一覧に準拠するキー (例:「GPL-2.0-or-later」「MIT」) を使用する必要があります。

Publishing

To autocategorize and standardize the documentation of your existing extension, please see テンプレート:拡張機能 . To add your new extension to this Wiki:


A developer sharing their code in the MediaWiki code repository should expect:

フィードバック / 批評 / コード レビュー
Review and comments by other developers on things like framework use, security, efficiency and usability.
Developer tweaking
Other developers modifying your submission to improve or clean-up your code to meet new framework classes and methods, coding conventions and translations.
Improved access for wiki sysadmins
If you do decide to put your code on the wiki, another developer may decide to move it to the MediaWiki code repository for easier maintenance. You may then create a 開発者アカウント to continue maintaining it.
他の開発者による将来のバージョン
New branches of your code being created automatically as new versions of MediaWiki are released. You should backport to these branches if you want to support older versions.
Incorporation of your code into other extensions with duplicate or similar purposes — incorporating the best features from each extension.
帰属
Credit for your work being preserved in future versions — including any merged extensions.
Similarly, you should credit the developers of any extensions whose code you borrow from — especially when performing a merger.

Any developer who is uncomfortable with any of these actions occurring should not host in the code repository. You are still encouraged to create a summary page for your extension on the wiki to let people know about the extension, and where to download it.

Deploying and registering

If you intend to have your extension deployed on Wikimedia sites (including possibly Wikipedia), additional scrutiny is warranted in terms of performance and security. Writing an extension for deployment を参照してください。

If your extension adds namespaces, you may wish to register its default namespaces; likewise, if it adds database tables or fields, you may want to register those at database table and field registration .

Please be aware that review and deployment of new extensions on Wikimedia sites can be extremely slow, and in some cases has taken more than two years.[2]

ヘルプの説明文書

You should provide public domain help documentation for features provided by your extension. Help:CirrusSearch is a good example. You should give users a link to the documentation via the addHelpLink() function.

Providing support / collaboration

Extension developers should open an account on Wikimedia's Phabricator , and request a new project for the extension. This provides a public venue where users can submit issues and suggestions, and you can collaborate with users and other developers to triage bugs and plan features of your extension.

関連項目

参考資料