Growth/肯定的な心理的強化

This page is a translated version of the page Growth/Positive reinforcement and the translation is 30% complete.
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指導役向けのリソース コミュニティ対応のリソース

このページでは Growth 機能セットに含まれる「肯定的な心理的強化」の作業を述べます。主な利点、設計、未解決の疑問、決定事項を載せます。

進捗状況で増えた更新のほとんどは一般向けのGrowthチームの更新ページに、このページには特定の大規模または詳細な更新をそれぞれ掲載します。

現状

  • 2021-03-01: 新しく作成したプロジェクトのページ
  • 2022-02-25: チームの協議を経てプロジェクトが発足
  • 2022-03-01: プロジェクトのページを拡充
  • 2022-05-11: コミュニティの議論

概要

Growth チームでは、初学者にはウィキメディアの行動するコミュニティに参加する手助けとなる要素があると考え、それを使う「きっかけ」(access)となる「一連の編集初学者の経験」の設計に注目してきました。 一例として初学者向けのタスク newcomer tasks は 参加のチャンス が手に入り、指導役のモジュール mentorship module では、指導役との出会い の機会が実現します。 また「お勧め編集」は初めての編集作業を完了する初学者の数を増やしてきました。 これらの成功によって、初学者の皆さんにはもっと編集作業を続けてほしいと願って、力づけるような方策を実施したいと考えます。 ここから初学者が使いたいのに、まだ十分に開発できていない要素に注目しました。つまり、パフォーマンスの評価です。 当チームではこのプロジェクトを「肯定的な心理的強化」“positive reinforcement” と名づけました。

初学者の皆さんには、ウィキペディアでは投稿を続けることに価値があり段階的な成長に結びつく点、また自分たちのように編集作業の第一歩を踏み出した利用者は、定着率が向上する点をわかってもらいたいのです。

ここで私たちには大きな疑問があります。私たちのホームページを訪れて新規参加者がその機能をいくつか試してみたとして、もっと編集を続けたり前向きな勢いをつけるにはどのように励ますことができるでしょうか?

背景

新規参加者向けのホームページ導入は2019年で、当時は基礎的な「影響モジュール」として当該の新規参加者が編集したページについて、その後の閲覧数を載せただけでした。Growth 機能のうち、新規参加者にとって自分自身がどんな影響を与えたか知ることができるのはこれが唯一のパーツでおり、当チームでは導入以来、まったく改善しないままにしてきました。

 
影響モジュールの画面キャプチャ、英語版ウィキペディアの場合

ここをスタート地点と考え、肯定的な心理的強化に関する重要な学びを以下のように集めてみました。

  • コミュニティの皆さんからモジュールに寄せられた感想は良好で、熟練の編集者からも興味を引かれるし勝ちを認めるとのご意見でした。
  • 他の利用者から感謝されると定着率が上がる傾向があり、例えば「感謝」ボタン(これこれ)やドイツ語版ウィキペディアが行った実証実験で見られました。当チームは実在する人々からこれらの心理的な強化(reinforcements)を受ける方がシステムの自動的な反応よりも効果が高いと考えています。
  • コミュニティの皆さんのご意見では、編集初学者にとって最初こそ簡単なタスクで良いけれど、もっと価値のあるタスクに移行することの優先順位は高く、いつまでも容易なタスクを続けない方が良いとのことです。
  • プラットフォーが異なると、例えば Google(グーグル)、Duolingo(デュオリンゴ)、Github(ギットハブ)などだと、バッジや中間ゴールなど、肯定的な心理的強化のためにいくつもの仕組みを採用しています。
  • 不健全な編集に報償を与えるようではいけないとコミュニティでは心配しています。 これまでの事例で編集コンテストで賞金(現金)がもらえたり、あるいは利用者の権限が「拡張承認された利用者」かどうかにかたよる(extended confirmed)、あるいは一定の編集回数で線引きすると、皆さんに問題のある編集かどうか気にかけるきっかけを見失わせる傾向が見られます。

利用者の人物像

 
図=編集者学者の道のりに訪れる肯定的な強化

There are many parts of the newcomer journey in which we could attempt to increase retention. We could focus on newcomers who have stopped editing after just one or a few edits, or we could focus farther down the journey on newcomers who have stopped editing after weeks of activity. For this project, we have decided to focus on those newcomers who have completed their first editing session, and who we want to return for a second session. The diagram illustrates these with a yellow star.

We want to focus on newcomers at this stage, as that’s the next stage of the editor funnel in which we can help improve retention.

It is also where we see a very significant attrition rate currently, so if we can help retain newcomers at this point, it should have a meaningful increase in editor growth overtime.

調査と設計

Research was conducted on the various mechanisms that have been employed to encourage people to contribute content to both on and off-wiki products.

The following are some of the key findings from the research:

  • Motivations for Wikipedia editors are multifaceted, and shift over time and experience. New editors are often driven more by curiosity and social connection than ideology.
  • Internal projects focus on intrinsic incentives, appeal to altruistic motivations, and are not systematically applied.
  • Broadening the appeal beyond ideological motivations may improve diversity of retained editors on Wikipedia.
  • Positive messages from experienced users and mentors is proven effective in short-term retention.

To see a summary of the current design ideas for Positive Reinforcement, see this Design Brief.

Our designs will evolve further through community feedback and several rounds of user testing.

アイデア類

We have three main ideas for positive reinforcement. We may pursue multiple ideas as we work on this project.

影響

  • Impact: An overhaul of the Impact module based on incorporating stats, graphs, and other contribution information. The revised impact module would provide new editors more context about their impact, as well as encourages them to continue contributing. Areas of exploration include:
    • Suggested edits milestone, to nudge users to try suggested edits.
    • Statistics on how much the user has edited over time (similar to what is in X Tools).
    • “Thanks received” count, to highlight the ability to receive community recognition.
    • Recent editing activity - including days in a row newcomers have edited (“streaks”) to encourage continued engagement or remind people to restart their contributions.
    • View reading activity on articles newcomers have edited over time (similar to info on en:Wikipedia:Pageview_statistics).

レベルを上げる

  • Leveling up: It is important to communities that newcomers progress to more valuable tasks. For those who do many easy tasks, we want to nudge them toward trying more difficult tasks. This could happen after they complete a certain number of easy tasks, or by encouragement on their homepage. Areas of exploration include:
    • The newcomer will see success messages post-editing that motivate them to do more edits of the same or different levels of difficulty.
    • In the Suggested Edits module, provide opportunities to do more difficult edits, so that newcomers can become more skilled editors.
    • In the Impact module, include a milestone counter or award area.
    • On the Homepage, add a new module with set challenges to attain some reward (badge/certificate).
    • Add notifications to prompt newcomers to try a more difficult task.

個人からの賞賛

  • Personalized praise: research shows that praise and encouragement from other users increases newcomer retention. We want to think about how to encourage experienced users to thank and award newcomers for good contributions. Perhaps mentors could be encouraged to do this on their mentor dashboards or through notifications. We can utilize existing communication mechanisms which past studies have proven to have a degree of positive effect. Areas of exploration include:
    • A personal message from the newcomer’s mentor appearing in the homepage.
    • An echo notification from the mentor or the Wikimedia Growth team.
    • “Thanks” on a specific edit.
    • A new milestone badge awarded by the mentor or the Wikimedia Growth team relating to a specific edit.

コミュニティの議論

We discussed the Positive Reinforcement project with community members from アラビア語版ウィキペディア、​ベンガル語版ウィキペディア、​チェコ語版ウィキペディア および フランス語版ウィキペディア, and here on mediawiki.org.

We received direct feedback about the three main ideas, along with many other ideas for improving new editor retention.

Below is a summary of the main themes from the feedback, along with how we plan to iterate based on the feedback.

影響

We heard... Plans to iterate based on feedback
😊 Looks good! This idea seems the least controversial and most supported. We will plan to start development on this first, and allow for more time to refine other ideas.
😐 The impact module would be more effective if it scaled with editors as they gained experience. We plan to focus on newcomers for now, but the new impact module will be built in an extensible way to accommodate improvements in the future.

レベルを上げる

We heard... Plans to iterate based on feedback
😊 Leveling up ensures newcomers don't get "stuck" on easy tasks Once users have a certain number of unreverted edits of one type, we should suggest they try more difficult tasks.
😊 Newcomers are often eager for awards If we give awards they will need to feel meaningful to newcomers, and ideally are sharable either on-wiki (on their user page) or off-wiki.
Goal-based incentives might be problematic, and may result in low-quality edits Incentives that include a time-based element (similar to service awards) might be an effective approach as they factor in not only number of edits, but length of time registered. Certain "quality gates" could help slow down and guide newcomers if they are making edits that are getting reverted. We plan to reduce the scope on the award-side of "Leveling Up" for now, and focus more on encouraging users to try more difficult task-types as they are successful with easier tasks.
Daily goals might be stressful and demotivating for some people We will review this idea further and likely allow for goal customization if we pursue this idea.

Personalized praise

We heard... Plans to iterate based on feedback
😊 Spreading praise and positivity might help increase newcomer retention. We are still refining designs for how to encourage more Thanks and personalized paise of newcomers, but hope to have further design ideas to present soon.
😐 Scaling personalized praise might be a challenge as it takes more time for experienced editors. Mentors are already busy, so we hope to find a way to surface "praise-worthy" mentees. We will also brainstorm other ideas that don't rely on just mentees.
😐 We should use existing systems (Thanks, WikiLove, etc.) Plans aren't finalized, but we definitely plan to take advantage of existing systems.

その他の発想:

Community members suggested several other ideas for improving newcomer engagement and retention. We think these are all valuable ideas (some of which we are already exploring or want to work on in the future) but the following ideas won't fit within the scope of the current project:

  • Send newcomers onboarding and welcome emails (the Growth team is actually currently exploring engagement emails in collaboration with the Marketing and the Fundraising teams).
  • Expose newcomers to Wikiprojects that relate to their interests.
  • Include a customizable widget on the newcomer homepage to allow wikis to promote certain newcomer tasks or events.
  • Send notifications to users who welcome newcomers once the newcomer reaches certain editing milestones (to help prompt the user to offer Thanks or Wikilove).


ユーザー テスト

Along with community discussion, we want to validate and add to our initial designs and hypothesis. We will conduct Positive Reinforcement user research aimed to better understand the project's impact on newcomer contribution across several different languages. We will share these results here.

計測と成果

コミュニティとの協議が完了次第、設計を改良し開発とテストも完了した段階で、チーム所属のデータ解析の専門家に「肯定的な動議づけ」プロジェクト Positive Reinforcement の影響を見守り精査してもらいます。 当初の計測プランとその後の観察結果は、ここで共有していく予定です。