Rozszerzenie:CheckUser

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Podręcznik rozszerzeń MediaWiki
CheckUser
Status wydania: stabilne
Realizacja Strona specjalna , Tożsamość użytkownika , API , Hak , Bazy danych
Opis Funkcja CheckUser umożliwia uprawnionym użytkownikom sprawdzanie adresów IP używanych przez danych użytkowników oraz nazw użytkowników korzystających z danego adresu IP bez konieczności ręcznego wysyłania zapytań do bazy danych.
Autor(zy) Tim Starling, Aaron Schulz, Dreamy Jazz
Ostatnia wersja 2.5 (continuous updates)
Polityka zgodności Snapshots releases along with MediaWiki. Master is not backward compatible.
MediaWiki 1.39+
PHP 7.4.3+
Zmiany w bazie danych Tak
Tabele cu_changes
cu_log_event
cu_private_event
cu_log
cu_useragent_clienthints
cu_useragent_clienthints_map
cu_useragent
Licencja GNU General Public License 2.0 or later
Pobieranie
  • $wgCheckUserGBtoollink
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsSpecialPages
  • $wgCheckUserCAMultiLock
  • $wgCheckUserLogSuccessfulBotLogins
  • $wgCheckUserLogLogins
  • $wgCUPublicKey
  • $wgCheckUserCAtoollink
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsRestApiMaxTimeLag
  • $wgCheckUserDeveloperMode
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsForDisplay
  • $wgCUDMaxAge
  • $wgCheckUserCIDRLimit
  • $wgCheckUserMaxBlocks
  • $wgCheckUserPurgeOldClientHintsData
  • $wgCheckUserDisplayClientHints
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsUnsetHeaderWhenPossible
  • $wgCheckUserForceSummary
  • $wgCheckUserEnableSpecialInvestigate
  • $wgCheckUserLogAdditionalRights
  • $wgCheckUserCollapseCheckUserHelperByDefault
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsValuesToHide
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsEnabled
  • $wgCheckUserMaximumRowCount
  • $wgCheckUserInvestigateMaximumRowCount
  • $wgCheckUserTemporaryAccountMaxAge
  • $wgCheckUserEventTablesMigrationStage
  • $wgCheckUserClientHintsHeaders

  • checkuser
  • checkuser-log
  • checkuser-temporary-account
  • investigate
Quarterly downloads 208 (Ranked 30th)
Public wikis using 9,118 (Ranked 13th)
Przetłumacz rozszerzenie CheckUser jeżeli jest dostępne na translatewiki.net
Problemy Otwarte zadania · Zgłoś błąd
Ta strona opisuje rozszerzenie. Zobacz Politykę CheckUserów na Meta Wiki, aby znaleźć informacje na temat wytycznych Fundacji Wikimedia.

CheckUser jest rozszerzeniem pozwalającym użytkownikom z uprawnieniem checkuser na sprawdzanie adresów IP używanych przez danych użytkowników oraz nazw użytkowników korzystających z danego adresu IP bez konieczności ręcznego wysyłania zapytań do bazy danych. Rozszerzenie jest wykorzystywane na wszystkich wiki Fundacji Wikimedia.

Aktualizacje będą wprowadzane według potrzeb wiki Fundacji Wikimedia, lub w przypadku wykrycia krytycznych problemów.

Instalacja

  • Pobierz i umieść plik(i) w katalogu o nazwie CheckUser w folderze extensions/.
    Developers and code contributors should install the extension from Git instead, using:cd extensions/
    git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/mediawiki/extensions/CheckUser
  • Tylko w przypadku instalacji z repozytorium git należy uruchomić Composer, aby zainstalować zależności PHP, poprzez wywołanie composer install --no-dev w katalogu rozszerzenia. (Zobacz zadanie T173141 w celu uzyskania informacji o możliwych komplikacjach.)
  • Dodaj poniższy kod na dole twojego pliku LocalSettings.php :
    wfLoadExtension( 'CheckUser' );
    
  • Uruchom skrypt aktualizujący, który automatycznie stworzy potrzebne tabele dla tego rozszerzenia.
  • Configure as required.
  •   Zrobione – Przejdź do Special:Version na twojej wiki, aby sprawdzić czy rozszerzenie zostało pomyślnie zainstalowane.

Using MediaWiki-Docker

Follow the steps in MediaWiki-Docker/Extension/CheckUser to install this extension inside a MediaWiki Docker instance.

Konfiguracja

This tool copies recent changes data to separate tables, and adds to that when new entries are added. If $wgPutIPinRC is set to false, the copied data will not contain the associated IP address. However, entries added after installation of this extension will contain the IP address.

After installation of this extension, you can reduce $wgRCMaxAge to make recentchanges shorter without affecting checkuser. Use $wgCUDMaxAge to set how far back checkuser data can go, in seconds.

The CheckUser-specific setting $wgCheckUserCIDRLimit determines the largest range that can be checked in a single check. Its format is the same as $wgBlockCIDRLimit . The default limit is /32 for IPv6 checks and /16 for IPv4 checks.

To allow this tool to log successful and failed login attempts as well as logouts, set $wgCheckUserLogLogins to true. If you have bot accounts on your wiki, setting $wgCheckUserLogSuccessfulBotLogins to false will skip logging successful login attempts to bot accounts.

Nadawanie uprawnień CheckUser

To grant the right to use Special:CheckUser, Special:Investigate and Special:CheckUserLog, a user with user rights management must go to Special:UserRights and enter the user's name in the box, then select the option "checkuser". Once this is done, the aforementioned special pages will show up in Special:SpecialPages page for that user.

To allow users to access the IP addresses of temporary accounts, they should be granted the checkuser-temporary-account right.

To give sysops all the rights this extension provides, put the following into LocalSettings.php:

$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['checkuser'] = true;
$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['checkuser-log'] = true;
$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['investigate'] = true;
$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['checkuser-temporary-account'] = true;

To only allow the adding and removing of the checkuser permission, use the following instead:

$wgAddGroups['sysop'][] = 'checkuser';
$wgRemoveGroups['sysop'][] = 'checkuser';

Konfiguracja

Ustawienia konfiguracyjne w extension.json
Parametr Wartość domyślna Komentarz
$wgCUDMaxAge 7776000 Definiuje jak długo przechowywane są informacje CheckUsera (w sekundach). Domyślna wartość to 3 miesiące.
$wgCheckUserMaxBlocks 200 Limit masowej blokady
$wgCheckUserForceSummary false Ustaw wartość tego ustawienia na true, jeżeli chcesz wymusić na checkuserach podawanie powodu każdego indywidualnego sprawdzenia które wykonują za pośrednictwem Special:CheckUser. (Nie jest to specjalnie skuteczna metoda, ponieważ checkuser może bez problemu podać powód w stylu „Wymaga sprawdzenia” lub „Bo tak”, a oprogramowanie nie będzie o tym wiedzieć.)
$wgCheckUserCIDRLimit [ 'IPv4' => 16, 'IPv6' => 19 ] Smallest CIDR value that can be used in any individual range check
$wgCUPublicKey '' Public key to encrypt private data that may need to be read later. Generate a public key with something like:

openssl genrsa -out cu.key 2048; openssl rsa -in cu.key -pubout > cu.pub and paste the contents of cu.pub here

Used with an associated private key to encrypt certain data that is not shown to CUs but stored in the cu_changes or cu_private_event table. Currently this is only the recipients of emails. Without a valid public key the data will not be stored.

$wgCheckUserCAMultiLock false This can be used to add a link to Special:MultiLock by CentralAuth to the Special:CheckUser's mass block form. This requires the CentralAuth extension to be installed on the wiki. To enable this, set this to an array with a central wiki's database name and an array with the name(s) of the global group(s) to add the link for. For example:
$wgCheckUserCAMultiLock = [
    'centralDB' => 'metawiki',
    'groups' => [ 'steward' ]
];
$wgCheckUserCAtoollink false Since 77360f1cf1d2. This adds a link to central wiki Special:CentralAuth to the Special:CheckUser's "Get users" results. This requires the CentralAuth extension to be installed on the wiki. To enable this, set this with a central wiki's database name. For example:
$wgCheckUserCAtoollink = 'metawiki';
$wgCheckUserGBtoollink false Since 77360f1cf1d2. This adds a link to local or central wiki Special:GlobalBlock to the Special:CheckUser's "Get users" results. This requires the GlobalBlocking extension to be installed on the wiki. To enable this, if a $wgConf is configured, set this to an array with a central wiki's database name and an array with the name(s) of the local (or global if you have CentralAuth installed) group(s) to add the link for. For example:
$wgCheckUserGBtoollink = [
	'centralDB' => 'metawiki',
	'groups' => [ 'steward', 'staff' ]
];
$wgCheckUserEnableSpecialInvestigate (1.35-1.43) false (<=1.39)
true (1.40+)
Since 57dcfe46d2e4. This enables Special:Investigate, an updated version of Special:CheckUser that allows checking for multiple user accounts and IP addresses within one investigation.
$wgCheckUserLogLogins false Whether CheckUser should log login and logout attempts (both successful and not).
$wgCheckUserLogSuccessfulBotLogins true Whether CheckUser should store successful login attempts to accounts with the bot user group if $wgCheckUserLogLogins is set to true. Only is used if $wgCheckUserLogLogins is true
$wgCheckUserMaximumRowCount 5000 The maximum number of results that can be returned by Special:CheckUser. Before MediaWiki 1.39, in the 'Get edits' and 'Get IPs' results having over 5000 results would return the results in a different format. From MediaWiki 1.39 this is the maximum number of results to show by page and more can be generated using the paging links
$wgCheckUserInvestigateMaximumRowCount 25000 Similar to $wgCheckUserMaximumRowCount, but for Investigate
$wgCheckUserTemporaryAccountMaxAge (1.40+) 86400 The number of seconds for which the temporary account API response is fresh.
$wgCheckUserEventTablesMigrationStage (1.40+) 3 (1.40)
259 (1.41)
769 (1.42+)
Used to control the migration stage of log events stored in cu_changes to the new cu_log_event and cu_private_event tables. Is temporary and will be removed once migration is complete.
$wgCheckUserClientHintsEnabled (1.41+) true Used to control whether client hints should be collected and displayed in results by CheckUser.
$wgCheckUserClientHintsSpecialPages (1.41+) [ "CreateAccount", "Emailuser", "PasswordReset", "Userlogin", "Userlogout" ] The list of SpecialPages where CheckUser will request client hints if $wgCheckUserClientHintsEnabled is true.
$wgCheckUserClientHintsActionQueryParameter (1.41+) [ "history" ] The list of "action" values in the query parameters where client hints will be requested.
$wgCheckUserClientHintsHeaders (1.41+) { "Sec-CH-UA": "", "Sec-CH-UA-Arch": "architecture", "Sec-CH-UA-Bitness": "bitness", "": "brands", "Sec-CH-UA-Form-Factor": "", "Sec-CH-UA-Full-Version-List": "fullVersionList", "Sec-CH-UA-Mobile": "mobile", "Sec-CH-UA-Model": "model", "Sec-CH-UA-Platform": "platform", "Sec-CH-UA-Platform-Version": "platformVersion", "Sec-CH-UA-WoW64": ""} The list of client hint types that will be requested. Keys represent the client hint values requested using the Accept-CH header. Values represent the equivalent name when requesting them from the JS client side client hints API.
$wgCheckUserClientHintsUnsetHeaderWhenPossible (1.41+) true If true, the server will send an empty Accept-CH header when the user is viewing a page which does not need client hints data.


Special:CheckUser usage

Podstawy interfejsu

  1. In the user field, type in the username (without the User: prefix), IP address, or CIDR range.
    • IP: any IPv4 or IPv6 address.
    • CIDR: you can check a range of IP addresses by appending the CIDR prefix. The CIDR prefix value for IPv4 can be between 16-32 and the value for IPv6 can be between 19-128. The smaller number for both ranges can be changed using the configuration variable $wgCheckUserCIDRLimit. For notation, see Help:Blokowanie zakresów IP .
    • XFF: you can check a client IP address provided by X-Forwarded-For headers by appending /xff (for example, 127.0.0.1/xff).
  1. Select the information you want to retrieve.
    • Znajdź adresy IP - returns IP addresses used by a registered user.
    • Pozyskaj działania - returns all edits and logged actions made by users using an IP address or range specified in the target field, or if the target is a user all edits and logged actions by that user.
    • Znajdź użytkowników - returns user accounts that have edited from an IP or range.
  1. In the "Powód" field, type in the reason you are accessing the confidential data.

Try to succinctly summarise the situation (for example, "cross-wiki spam"); this will be logged in a log visible only to users with the checkuser-log permission.


Zwracane informacje

A typical entry in the CheckUser results for a user summary ("get users") is as follows:


  1. Example user agent

This is formatted to fit a lot of information into a format that can very easily be listed and skimmed, but is difficult to read unless you know what the information provided is. The information is laid out as follows:

  • nazwa użytkownika (linki użytkownika) (time period when they edited from the given IP or range) [number of edits from the IP or range]
    1. IP address edited from XFF: XFF information provided (can be spoofed)

Each IP/XFF combination used to edit is listed, in order of use.

The last ten user agents (browser, operating system, system language, and versions) for each user for edits made in the IP or range are listed afterwards.

Format XFF

XFF (X-Forwarded-For) headers indicate the series of IP addresses used from the user's computer (first) to the last proxy server. In case of Wikimedia, the last proxy server is one of the Wikimedia proxies (listed under $wgCdnServersNoPurge in the Wikimedia configuration file).

In this example:

aaa.aaa.aaa.aaa XFF: 10.4.46.42, 127.0.0.1, aaa.aaa.aaa.aaa, 208.80.152.46

  • the first two addresses (10.4.46.42, 127.0.0.1) are private to the originating network and can't be reached directly from the public Internet,
  • the third address (aaa.aaa.aaa.aaa) is the "public face" of the editor, usually a broadband or dial-up ISP, a company gateway, (but possibly an anonymizer or a malware-compromised server),
  • the last address (208.80.152.46) is one of the Wikimedia squids (sq36.wikimedia.org).

MediaWiki configuration settings $wgUsePrivateIPs , $wgCdnServers , $wgCdnServersNoPurge and extensions using the IsTrustedProxy hook (such as Extension:TrustedXFF ) change the way an actual IP address used to attribute edits is selected.

Linki z narzędziami

Gdy uzyskasz wynik sprawdzenia na Special:CheckUser, możesz dodać spersonalizowane linki do narzędzi poprzez dwa komunikaty systemowe:

  • MediaWiki:checkuser-userlinks-ip dla sprawdzeń adresów IP (przykład: m:MediaWiki:checkuser-userlinks-ip)
  • MediaWiki:Checkuser-userlinks dla sprawdzeń zarejestrowanych użytkowników (przykład: m:MediaWiki:Checkuser-userlinks)
  • MediaWiki:checkuser-toollinks for IPs in the 'Get IP Addresses' check type (for example m:MediaWiki:checkuser-toollinks)
  • MediaWiki:Checkuser-cidr-tool-links for IP ranges produced by the CIDR calculator present at the bottom of all Special:CheckUser pages. Interface message added in 1.41.


Special:Investigate usage

Basic usage

  1. Go to Special:Investigate.
  1. In the Nazwy użytkownika i adresy IP field, type in up to 10 targets, which may be usernames (without the User: prefix), IP addresses, or CIDR ranges.
  2. In the Powód field, enter the reason you are accessing the confidential data, as described in the Special:CheckUser instructions above; this will be logged in a log visible only to users with the checkuser-log permission.

For advanced feature usage, see Help:Special Investigate.

Customizing tool links

As with Special:CheckUser, links to external tools can be customized.

The links are defined in the checkuser-investigate-compare-toollinks message. This message is parsed to find links, which are added to the menu in the IP i aplikacje klientów tab.


Showing IPs for temporary accounts

Wersja MediaWiki:
1.40
 

The CheckUser extension will show since MediaWiki 1.40 a button that is displayed next to temporary account user links which allows the revealing of their IP address.

This functionality is available exclusively to users with the checkuser-temporary-account privilege, granting them the ability to view the IP addresses that are linked to temporary accounts. To access this information, the Enable revealing IP addresses for temporary accounts feature must be enabled on the user's Special:Preferences page.

These buttons will appear wherever user links are shown for a temporary account, such as when viewing page histories or in Special:Contributions. However, these will not be shown on Special:CheckUser, Special:Investigate or Special:InvestigateBlock.

API

CheckUser and CheckUserLog API

CheckUser dodaje również swoje API. These two APIs work fairly similarly to the special pages, but the reason for a check using the checkuser API is prefixed with "API:" to indicate they were made using the API. Example usages of these APIs are shown below.

CheckUser API
api.php?action=query&list=checkuser&curequest=userips&cutarget=Jimbo_Wales
api.php?action=query&list=checkuser&curequest=edits&cutarget=127.0.0.1/16&xff=1&cureason=Some_check
CheckUserLog API
api.php?action=query&list=checkuserlog&culuser=WikiSysop&cullimit=25
api.php?action=query&list=checkuserlog&cultarget=127.0.0.1&culfrom=20111015230000

Temporary Account Reveal API

Wersja MediaWiki:
1.40

Usage

The TemporaryAccountHandler class offers API endpoints for retrieving the IP addresses associated with temporary user accounts. To access this information, the Enable revealing IP addresses for temporary accounts feature must be enabled on the user's Special:Preferences page.

API endpoint

GET /rest.php/checkuser/v0/temporaryaccount/{name} where {name} is the user name you want to look up

Response

If the request is successful, the API will respond with a JSON object containing the following fields:

Name Type Description
ips string[] IPs of the given temporary account

If the request fails, the API will respond with an appropriate error code and message.

Example request

GET /rest.php/checkuser/v0/temporaryaccount/*Unregistered%202

Example response

{"ips": [ "114.127.69.62" , "212.47.235.82" , "212.47.235.81" ]}

TemporaryAccountRevisionHandler

The TemporaryAccountRevisionHandler class offers API endpoints for viewing the IP associated with a revision for temporary accounts. You can specify one or multiple revision IDs in the query string.

API endpoint

GET /rest.php/checkuser/v0/temporaryaccount/*Unregistered%203/revisions/{revisionId} where {revisionId} is the revision ID(s) you want to look up separated by the | character.

Odpowiedź

If the request is successful, the API will respond with a JSON object containing the following fields:

Name Type Description
ips dictionary The revision ID as the key and the associated IP address as the value.

If the request fails, the API will respond with an appropriate error code and message.

Przykładowe zapytanie

GET /rest.php/checkuser/v0/temporaryaccount/*Unregistered%203/revisions/31

Przykładowa odpowiedź

{"ips":{"31":"40.175.36.227"}}

Example request with multiple revisions

GET /w/rest.php/checkuser/v0/temporaryaccount/*Unregistered%205/revisions/194|193

Przykładowa odpowiedź

{"ips":{"194":"40.175.36.227","193":"1.2.3.4"}}