확장 기능:검사관

This page is a translated version of the page Extension:CheckUser and the translation is 36% complete.
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미디어위키 확장 기능 매뉴얼
OOjs UI icon advanced.svg
CheckUser
출시 상태: 안정
CheckUser1.png
구현 특수 문서 , User identity
설명 CheckUser 기능을 사용하면 사용자가 데이터베이스에 직접 쿼리를 실행하지 않고도 특정 사용자 이름에서 사용되는 IP와 사용자 이름을 확인할 수 있습니다.
만든이 Tim Starling, Aaron Schulz
최신 버전 2.5 (continuous updates)
호환성 정책 출시 브랜치
MediaWiki 1.27+
PHP 5.4+
데이터베이스 변경
테이블 cu_changes
cu_log
라이선스 GNU General Public License 2.0 or later
다운로드
  • $wgCheckUserCIDRLimit
  • $wgCheckUserMaxBlocks
  • $wgCheckUserCAMultiLock
  • $wgCheckUserLogSuccessfulBotLogins
  • $wgCheckUserForceSummary
  • $wgCheckUserEnableSpecialInvestigate
  • $wgCheckUserLogLogins
  • $wgCUPublicKey
  • $wgCheckUserCAtoollink
  • $wgCheckUserMaximumRowCount
  • $wgCheckUserLogAdditionalRights
  • $wgCheckUserGBtoollink
  • $wgCUDMaxAge

  • checkuser
  • checkuser-log
  • investigate
CheckUser 확장 기능 번역 (translatewiki.net에서 가능한 경우)
사용법과 버전 매트릭스를 확인합니다.
이슈 미해결 작업 · 버그 보고
이 문서는 확장 기능에 관한 것입니다. 위키미디어 재단의 검사관 정책을 찾으신다면, m:CheckUser policy를 보십시오.

Checkuser검사관 권한을 가지고 있는 사용자가 데이터베이스에 직접 쿼리를 요청하지 않고도 사용자가 사용하는 아이피와 어떤 사용자가 특정 아이피를 사용하는지 알 수 있는 확장 기능입니다. 이 확장 기능은 모든 위키미디어 위키에서 사용 중입니다.

다운로드

The extension can be retrieved directly from Git

[?]:

  • Browse code
  • Some extensions have tags for stable releases.
  • Each branch is associated with a past MediaWiki release. There is also a "master" branch containing the latest alpha version (might require an alpha version of MediaWiki).

Extract the snapshot and place it in the extensions/CheckUser/ directory of your MediaWiki installation.

If you are familiar with git and have shell access to your server, you can also obtain the extension as follows:

cd extensions/
git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/mediawiki/extensions/CheckUser.git

설치

The extension is released under the GNU General Public License 2.0 or later. The software is provided as-is. Updates will be made according to the needs of Wikimedia wikis; or where critical vulnerabilities are discovered.

기존 위키

기본 사용

  • If you have installed other extensions without running php maintenance/update.php, run that first.
  • 파일을 다운로드해서, extensions/ 폴더 내의 CheckUser 이라는 이름의 디렉터리 내에 설치합니다.
  • 아래의 코드를 LocalSettings.php의 말미에 추가합니다:
    wfLoadExtension( 'CheckUser' );
    
  • 미디어위키 버전 1.27이나 그 이하 버전을 사용하고 계신 사용자에게:
Using a telnet/ssh client program such as PuTTY, navigate to the extensions/CheckUser folder and run php install.php. If you don't see an install.php in that folder, you may need to switch to an older version of this extension, to match your MediaWiki version, using a command similar to git checkout REL1_26. Ensure that you are running a PHP version 5.x install, otherwise this script will not run. If install.php is not present then run php maintenance/update.php again. The result will be something similar to this:
...cu_changes table added.
...doing rc_id from 368856 to 368955....
...
...cu_changes table added and populated.
...cu_log added
...logging disabled, skipping log import.
  •   완료 – 위키의 ‘Special:Version’에 이동해서, 확장기능이 올바르게 설치된 것을 확인합니다.

미디어위키 1.24 이하를 실행 중인 사용자에게:

위의 지시사항은 wfLoadExtension()을 사용하여 이 확장기능을 설치하는 새로운 방법을 기술한 것으로, wfLoadExtension( 'CheckUser' ); 대신 초기 버전(미디어위키 1.24 이하)에 이 확장기능을 설치하려면 다음을 사용해야 합니다:

require_once "$IP/extensions/CheckUser/CheckUser.php";
Installing without command prompt access

Many hosting providers don't allow direct shell access, but allow creation of cron jobs (e.g. via cPanel web interface). For those hosting providers a temporary cron job can be used to run php /path/to/install.php (naturally /path/to should be replaced with real full path to install.php). If you are using a remote server and do not have command prompt access (nor cron job solution is suitable for you), but do have access through phpMyAdmin, substitute these steps for step #2 above:

  1. cu_changes.sqlcu_log.sql를 설치하세요.
  1. In phpMyAdmin, click the database you're using for mediawiki along the left side
  1. 다음 화면에서, 상단에 있는 "Import" 탭을 클릭하세요.
  1. At "Location of the text file", choose one of the files, select compression "None", and click the bottom "Go" button.
  1. If your phpMyAdmin screen has only a text field and no text file chooser, click the "SQL" button in the left-side column, under the phpMyAdmin logo, and click the "import files" tab in the new window that opens.
  1. Repeat for the second file

새 위키

위의 1단계를 따른 뒤, 미디어위키 다운로드를 실행하세요. The MediaWiki installer will automatically perform the installation tasks if you select the checkbox for CheckUser when prompted for which extensions to install.

설정

This tool migrates recent changes data to a separate cu_changes table, and adds to that when new entries are added. If $wgPutIPinRC was previously set to false, there will be no initial data to search but new edits will fill in as soon as the extension is set up.

After you run the queries, you can reduce $wgRCMaxAge to make recentchanges shorter, without affecting checkuser. Use $wgCUDMaxAge to set how far back checkuser data can go, in seconds.

In versions for MediaWiki 1.22 and later, the CheckUser-specific setting $wgCheckUserCIDRLimit determines the largest range that can be checked in a single check. Its format is the same as $wgBlockCIDRLimit . Otherwise, the default limit (for all versions) is /32 for IPv6 checks and /16 for IPv4 checks.

CheckUsers using Mozilla Firefox can add this JS script to their .js file. It makes retrieving IP WHOIS data easier. It requires applets.codebase.principle support (about:config) enabled. (This can be signed.applets.codebase_principle_support in Firefox 3)

Granting right to use CheckUser

To grant the right to use the Check User function, a user with user rights management must go to Special:UserRights and enter the user's name in the box, then select the option "Check User". Once this is done, the Check User option will show up on the Special:SpecialPages page for that user.

To turn on user rights management for sysops, put the following into LocalSettings.php:

$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['checkuser'] = true;
$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['checkuser-log'] = true;
$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['investigate'] = true;

To only allow the adding and removing of the checkuser permission, use the following instead:

$wgAddGroups['sysop'][] = 'checkuser';
$wgRemoveGroups['sysop'][] = 'checkuser';

설정

extension.json의 구성 설정
매개변수 기본값 comment
$wgCUDMaxAge 7776000 How long to keep CU data (in seconds)? (default = 3 months)
$wgCheckUserMaxBlocks 200 대량 차단 한계
$wgCheckUserForceSummary false Set this to true if you want to force checkusers into giving a reason for each check they do through Special:CheckUser. (Not very useful, given that checkusers could simply give a summary such as "they need to be checked" or "I feel like it" and the software would not know.)
$wgCheckUserCIDRLimit [ 'IPv4' => 16, 'IPv6' => 32 ] Shortest CIDR limits that can be checked in any individual range check
$wgCUPublicKey '' Public key to encrypt private data that may need to be read later. Generate a public key with something like:

openssl genrsa -out cu.key 2048; openssl rsa -in cu.key -pubout > cu.pub and paste the contents of cu.pub here

$wgCheckUserCAMultiLock false This can be used to add a link to Special:MultiLock by CentralAuth to the Special:CheckUser's mass block form. This requires the CentralAuth extension to be installed on the wiki. To enable this, set this to an array with a central wiki's database name and an array with the name(s) of the global group(s) to add the link for. 예시:
$wgCheckUserCAMultiLock = [
    'centralDB' => 'metawiki',
    'groups' => [ 'steward' ]
];
$wgCheckUserCAtoollink false Since 77360f1cf1d2. This adds a link to central wiki Special:CentralAuth to the Special:CheckUser's "Get users" results. This requires the CentralAuth extension to be installed on the wiki. To enable this, set this with a central wiki's database name. 예시:
$wgCheckUserCAtoollink = 'metawiki';
$wgCheckUserGBtoollink false Since 77360f1cf1d2. This adds a link to local or central wiki Special:GlobalBlock to the Special:CheckUser's "Get users" results. This requires the GlobalBlocking extension to be installed on the wiki. To enable this, if a $wgConf is configured, set this to an array with a central wiki's database name and an array with the name(s) of the local (or global if you have CentralAuth installed) group(s) to add the link for. 예시:
$wgCheckUserGBtoollink = [
	'centralDB' => 'metawiki',
	'groups' => [ 'steward', 'staff' ]
];
$wgCheckUserEnableSpecialInvestigate false Since 57dcfe46d2e4. This enables Special:Investigate, an updated version of Special:CheckUser that allows checking for multiple user accounts and IP addresses within one investigation.

Special:CheckUser usage

기본 인터페이스

  1. Special:CheckUser에 가세요.
  1. In the user field, type in the username (without the 'user:' prefix), IP address, or CIDR range.
    • IP: IPv4나 IPv6 주소.
    • CIDR: you can check a range of IP addresses by appending the CIDR prefix (by default, up to /16 for IPv4 (65,536 addresses), up to /64 for IPv6 (~1.8446*1019 addresses) before revision 7352, up to /48 for IPv6 (~1.2089*1024 addresses or 65536 /64s - controlled by $wgCheckUserCIDRLimit in the latest version) after revision 7352, and up to /32 (65536 /48's) after revision rECHU9d7c239bf88866eca577f3241194d440f94fa014). For notation, see Range blocks.
    • XFF: you can check a client IP address provided by X-Forwarded-For headers by appending /xff (for example, 127.0.0.1/xff).
  1. 검색하고자 하는 정보를 선택하세요.
    • "아이피 받기": 등록된 사용자에 의해 사용되고있는 아이피를 보여줍니다.
    • Get edits from IP: returns all edits and logged actions made by a user (registered or anonymous) from an IP address or range.
    • 사용자 이름 받기: IP 범위에서 편집한 사용자 계정을 보여줍니다.
  1. In the reason field, type in the reason you are accessing the confidential data.

Try to succinctly summarise the situation (for example, "cross-wiki spam"); this will be logged in a log visible only to users with the checkuser-log permission.

정보 확인

A typical entry in the CheckUser results for a user summary ("get users") is as follows:

  • Example (Talk | contribs) (20:11, 29 10월 2020 -- 20:12, 29 10월 2020) [5]
    1. 127.0.0.37 XFF: 127.0.0.1, 127.0.0.5

This is formatted to fit a lot of information into a format that can very easily be listed and skimmed, but is difficult to read unless you know what the information provided is. The information is laid out as follows:

  • 사용자 이름 (사용자 링크) (time period when they edited from the given IP or range) [number of edits from the IP or range]
    1. IP address edited from XFF: XFF information provided (can be spoofed)

Each IP/XFF combination used to edit is listed, in order of use.

The last ten user agents (browser, operating system, system language, and versions) for each user for edits made in the IP or range are listed afterwards.

XFF 형식

XFF (X-Forwarded-For) headers indicate the series of IP addresses used from the user's computer (first) to the last proxy server.

In case of Wikimedia, the last proxy server is one of the Wikimedia proxies (listed under $wgCdnServersNoPurge in the Wikimedia configuration file).

예시:

aaa.aaa.aaa.aaa XFF: 10.4.46.42, 127.0.0.1, aaa.aaa.aaa.aaa, 208.80.152.46

  • the first two addresses (10.4.46.42, 127.0.0.1) are private to the originating network and can't be reached directly from the public Internet,
  • the third address (aaa.aaa.aaa.aaa) is the "public face" of the editor, usually a broadband or dialup ISP, a company gateway, (but possibly an anonymizer or a malware-compromised server),
  • the last address (208.80.152.46) is one of the Wikimedia squids (sq36.wikimedia.org).

MediaWiki configuration settings $wgUsePrivateIPs , $wgCdnServers , $wgCdnServersNoPurge and extensions using the IsTrustedProxy hook (such as Extension:TrustedXFF ) change the way an actual IP address used to attribute edits is selected.

개인 도구 링크

When you get results from Special:CheckUser you can add personal user tool links via two interface messages:

Special:Investigate의 사용

기본 사용법

  1. Special:Investigate에 가세요.
  2. In the Usernames and IP addresses field, type in up to 10 targets, which may be usernames (without the 'user:' prefix), IP addresses, or CIDR ranges.
  3. In the Reason field, enter the reason you are accessing the confidential data, as described in the Special:CheckUser instructions above; this will be logged in a log visible only to users with the investigate permission.

For advanced feature usage, see Help:Special Investigate.

Customizing tool links

As with Special:CheckUser, links to external tools can be customized.

The links are defined in the checkuser-investigate-compare-toollinks message. This message is parsed to find links, which are added to the menu in the IPs and user agents tab.

API

CheckUser는 API도 공급해줍니다.

api.php?action=query&list=checkuser&curequest=userips&cutarget=Jimbo_Wales
api.php?action=query&list=checkuser&curequest=edits&cutarget=127.0.0.1/16&xff=1&cureason=Some_check
api.php?action=query&list=checkuserlog&culuser=WikiSysop&cullimit=25
api.php?action=query&list=checkuserlog&cultarget=127.0.0.1&culfrom=20111015230000