Come diventare un hacker di MediaWiki

This page is a translated version of the page How to become a MediaWiki hacker and the translation is 41% complete.

Questo articolo è stato scritto per aiutare gli sviluppatori ad apprendere le abilità necessarie per contribuire allo sviluppo di MediaWiki core (il nucleo base) e delle estensioni aggiuntive per Mediawiki. Nella maggior parte dei casi, nell'utilizzare MediaWiki, non sarà necessario modificarla, a meno che non si sappia veramente bene ciò che si sta facendo.

Il primo approccio per iniziare con lo sviluppo di Wikimedia è quello di contribuire a un progetto Wikimedia assistito da parte di utenti già esperti (progetto con mentoring). Un'alternativa senza assistenza è quella di sistemare qualche eventuale piccolo bug fastidioso

Se sei uno sviluppatore avanzato e hai già maneggiato la funzione di MediaWiki, visita la Hub degli Sviluppatori .

Per sapere altri modi di contribuire nella comunità di Wikimedia, vedi Come contribuire .

Panoramica

MediaWiki è il software che permette di lavorare su Wikipedia, su i suoi progetti collegati, e su migliaia di pagine in tutto il mondo.

Sebbene MediaWiki è scritto nel linguaggio di programmazione PHP, alcuni strumenti aggiuntivi sono scritti in altri linguaggi, tra cui file batch, script di shell, makefiles e Python. Esso usa jQuery e anche la libreria cliente di JavaScript.

MediaWiki è scritto principalmente per la piattaforma LAMP, [1] e gira sulla maggior parte dei sistemi operativi. MediaWiki usa principalmente server di MySQL o MariaDB.[2]

Lo sviluppo avviene nello stile open source style[3], è ampiamente coordinato online, e supportato da Wikimedia Foundation, anche se gli sviluppatori di comunità volontarie svolgono un ruolo enorme.

Questa pagina ti aiuterà a diventare un collaboratore di MediaWiki. Non è un tutorial; serve solo ad indicarti i diversi posti dove puoi apprendere le informazioni necessarie.

Imposta il tuo ambiente di sviluppo

Molti progetti usano Git e Gerrit. Segui il Gerrit tutorial per impostare la tua utenza di sviluppo. Puoi scaricare il nostro codice, apportare le modifiche, testarle e inviare le patch. Ci sono due metodi per impostare l'ambiente di sviluppo: utilizzare l'impostazione di una macchina virtuale pre-configurata (Docker or Vagrant), oppure attraverso una configurazione manuale.

Ambiente di sviluppo Docker

  • MediaWiki Docker – Esegui MediaWiki utilizzando Docker (può essere utilizzato su host Linux, Windows, oppure macOS). This is the recommended method.

You can also try the experimental mwcli tool which provides basic orchestration functionality for MediaWiki docker containers.

Macchina virtuale con Vagrant

  • Installazione di Vagrant - Questi passi installeranno il server di MediaWiki con tutti i requisiti dentro una macchina virtuale con Linux (può essere utilizzato in Linux, Windows, o Hosts di Mac).

Vagrant is a powerful tool, but it is more complex and less robust than Docker, and significantly more resource-intensive. It is mainly aimed at developers who need to set up complex, flexible environments, e.g. for testing the interaction of multiple extensions.

Manuale di installazione

It's not necessary to download Wikipedia database dumps in order to develop MediaWiki features. In fact, in many cases it's easier to use a near-empty database with a few specially-crafted test pages. However, if for some reason you want to have a copy of Wikipedia, you can get a dump.

Communication tips and guidelines

Watch as a developer fixes a bug in a MediaWiki extension, including investigation, git commit, getting it reviewed and merged, and closing the Bugzilla ticket (now replaced by Phabricator ).

Follow these tips to communicate effectively and get help from community members.

Use Phabricator tasks effectively

When you plan to work on a Phabricator task:

  • No need to ask for permission: You can work on unassigned tasks without asking someone to assign them to you. There is no authority who assigns tasks or who needs to be asked first.
    • If a task already has a recent patch in Gerrit, choose a different task to work on instead.
    • If an existing patch in Gerrit has not been merged and has not seen any changes for a long time, you could improve that existing patch, based on the feedback in Gerrit and in the task.
  • Do your research: When you consider working on a task, do research before you start coding. Look at the code, try to understand what it is supposed to do, read related documentation, and try to find the places where you need to make code changes.
    • In a Phabricator task, use the project tags in the side bar to find the code repository for the task.
    • If you have no idea at all how to fix the bug, consider finding an easier one first.
  • You do not need to announce your plans before you start working on a task, but you should communicate that you are working on the task.
    • When you start work, set yourself as task assignee by clicking Edit Task… in Phabricator, and set your Phabricator username in the Assigned To field. This communicates to others that you are working on it, so they don't duplicate work.
    • When your plans or interests change: If you are no longer working on a task, remove yourself as the assignee of the task. This tells others that they can work on the task, and they won't expect you to still work on it.
  • Follow Phabricator etiquette.
    • In Phabricator tasks, discuss only specific questions about the topic of that task. Don't use Phabricator to ask general questions, like how to set up a development environment or how to fix problems with Gerrit.

Compose good questions

  • Don't ask to ask...just ask!.
  • Be specific and provide context: Instead of simply asking "Can you give me more info?", "Please guide me", or "Please tell me how to start", include the following information in your question:
    • What are you trying to achieve?
    • What have you already tried? Copy and paste your commands and their output (if not too long) instead of paraphrasing in your own words.
    • What have you found out already during your research? Include links to code, documentation, or other resources you already consulted.
  • Use specific titles and subject lines in your communication. "Proposal draft" or "Need help" is not specific.
  • Keep conversations readable: When you reply in Zulip, in Phabricator tasks, or on mailing lists, only quote sections of previous comments that are relevant to your response. If you quote a complete previous comment, it makes threads hard to read.

Follow communication policies and best practices

Before you send or post your question:

Ask in the right place

  • Ask in public: Do not send private messages if your conversation topic is not secret. Private messages don't help others.
  • Ask and discuss in the best place:
    • In Phabricator tasks, discuss only specific questions about the topic of that task.
    • Ask general technical questions, like how to set up a development environment or how to fix problems with Gerrit, in the places listed on Comunicazione .
    • If you take part in an outreach program, then Zulip is for discussing questions about the outreach programs themselves.

Be patient

After you post your question:

  • Do not ask people for code review in a separate message. People receive Gerrit and Phabricator notifications and will respond when they can.
  • When seeking input and comments, especially during weekends and holidays, you may need to wait until business hours resume. On chat channels like IRC: if nobody answers, try again at a different time; don't just give up!
  • If you don't get an answer even after waiting and being patient, consider if other Communication channels might be a better place to ask your question.

Appendice

 
I collaboratori di MediaWiki sono al lavoro a Bangalore, in India.

PHP

MediaWiki è programmato in PHP, perciò devi avere destrezza con il linguaggio PHP per contribuire a MediaWiki.

Apprendere il PHP
  • Tutorial di PHP — Disponibile in molte lingue diverse. Se non apprendi il linguaggio PHP ma sai programmare in altri linguaggi informatici, per te il PHP sarà facile da apprendere.
  • PHP Programming at Wikibooks.
  • PHP at Wikiversity.
Risorse PHP
Stuff to know
  • The script maintenance/eval.php in MediaWiki provides a basic PHP interpreter with MediaWiki objects and classes loaded.
  • Also, the script maintenance/shell.php in MediaWiki is a replacement of maintenance/eval.php based on PsySH, see Manual:Shell.php


Database

Many features require some amount of database manipulation, so you'll often need to be familiar with MySQL/MariaDB.

Learn MySQL/MariaDB
MySQL/MariaDB resources
Stuff to know
  • Test your code with MySQL/MariaDB.
    • MediaWiki currently uses MySQL and MariaDB as the primary database back-end. It also supports other DBMSes, such as PostgreSQL and SQLite. However, almost all developers use MySQL/MariaDB and don't test other DBs, which consequently break on a regular basis. You're therefore advised to use MySQL/MariaDB when testing patches, unless you're specifically trying to improve support for another DB. In the latter case, make sure you're careful not to break MySQL/MariaDB (or write queries that are horribly inefficient in it), since MySQL/MariaDB is what everybody else uses.

JavaScript and CSS

JavaScript and CSS have become omnipresent in front-end code. You don't have to be familiar with JavaScript, jQuery and CSS to work on MediaWiki, but you might need to, depending on what you choose to work on.

Learn JavaScript and CSS
JavaScript and CSS resources

MediaWiki

The MediaWiki code base is large and some parts are ugly; don't be overwhelmed by it. When you're first starting off, aim to write features or fix bugs which only touch a small region of code.

MediaWiki basics and must-reads
MediaWiki resources

MediaWiki extensions

If you choose to work on MediaWiki extensions code, the following links provide more information.

MediaWiki extensions basics:
MediaWiki extensions resources:

Vedi anche

  1. e gira sulla maggior parte delle piattaforme che supportano PHP. Ciò nonostante, la mancanza di alcune utility o di particolari caratteristiche del sistema operativo, possono limitare la funzionalità o rendimento di MediaWiki in piattaforme che non sono LAMP.
  2. MediaWiki ha supporti per DBMS oltre a MySQL e MariaDB, incluso anche Oracle, PostgreSQL, SQLite, e Microsoft SQL Server.
  3. Developers are a mix of volunteers and paid staff (or contractors) for various organizations. Per l'elenco completo di coloro che lavorano sul codice MediaWiki, leggere l'articolo Sviluppatori .
  4. Scorri il codice sorgente e le revisioni del codice in archivio su https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/ o scarica il codice sorgente sul tuo sistema utilizzando Gerrit.