Open main menu

Manual:Настройка загрузки файлов

This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Configuring file uploads and the translation is 24% complete.

Outdated translations are marked like this.
Other languages:
Bahasa Indonesia • ‎Deutsch • ‎English • ‎Türkçe • ‎français • ‎русский • ‎中文 • ‎日本語 • ‎한국어

MediaWiki позволяет загружать различные медиа-файлы.

В этой статье описываются технические аспекты этой возможности. Для получения общих сведений о загрузке изображений смотрите Manual:Image Administration и Help:Images/ru.

Начиная с версии 1.1, в MediaWiki загрузка изображений, по-умолчанию, отключена. Вы можете активировать эту функцию, но, для начала, проверьте требования:


Убедитесь, что загрузка активирована в PHP-конфиге

В php.ini должно быть указано следующее:

file_uploads = On

Если этот параметр не активирован - PHP-скрипты не смогут использовать функции загрузки файлов.

Если задана директива open_basedir, она должна содержать как папку загрузки назначения в вашей установленной MediaWiki («{$IP}/images»), так и папку «upload_tmp_dir» (системная папка по умолчанию, если она не установлена). Добавление 'upload_tmp_dir' может избежать сообщений типа Не удалось найти файл "/var/tmp/php31aWnF" (где в этом примере 'upload_tmp_dir' есть '/var/tmp').

Подробнее о загрузке файлов в PHP читайте Основы загрузки файлов и, в частности, move_uploaded_file().

Примечание. Формальное значение переменной - это boolean. PHP treats each string not recognized as a False value as true, hence the often used "on" value yields the same result.

Check for Windows and IIS users

Set %SystemRoot%\TEMP to have permissions for the Internet Guest Account (IUSR_MachineName, or IUSR for IIS 7+): Read, write and execute;

Проверьте права доступа

Права доступа на каталог загрузки должны быть настроены так, чтобы обычный пользователь не имел возможности загрузить и выполнить другие скрипты, способные навредить вашему сайту.

Set the /images folder (or the /uploads folder in previous versions) to have permission "755":

  • User can read, write and execute;
  • Group can read and execute;
  • World can read and execute.
Only the folders must have executable permissions. Files must not have the executable permission. In Linux, to remove executable permissions from all files in a folder, and to add executable permissions to the folder and all sub folders: chmod -x+X uploads_folder -R

If using safe_mode, make sure the directory is owned by the user used for running the php script (that is, the apache user).

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data images/

If using CentOS 6 or Mageia the owner:group in the chown command should be "apache:apache" instead of "www-data:www-data".

If using SELinux , make sure to adjust the ACLs accordingly (see there).

  • Restrict directory listing on images folder

If you don't want a public user to list your images folder, an option is to set this up in your apache configuration:

        <Directory /var/www/wiki/images>
                Options -Indexes

Check .htaccess file

The images directory in the MediaWiki installation folder contains an .htaccess file with some configurations on it. The goal of this file is to make the upload folder more secure, and if you place your upload directory somewhere else, it's recommended to also copy the .htaccess file to the new location, or apply that configuration on the server directly. However, some of those configurations may cause conflicts or errors, depending on how the server is configured.

Some things to take into account:

  • If the server doesn't allow to set or override directives in .htaccess files, accessing any file under that folder may result in a generic "HTTP 500 error". If that's the case, you should comment-out the lines, and apply those directives directly on the server configuration files. The directives that are most likely causing the problems are AddType —which prevents HTML and PHP files from being served as HTML—, and php_admin_flag —which would prevent PHP files from being parsed and executed on the server as such.
  • Before MediaWiki 1.27, if you have a custom 404 handler to generate thumbnails with the thumb.php script, the rewrite rules in this .htaccess file may disable previous rules, because it lacks the RewriteOptions inherit option (задача T67220).

Включение/отключение загрузки файлов

Версия MediaWiki: 1.5

Установите нужное значение параметра $wgEnableUploadsLocalSettings.php) для активации функции загрузки файлов:

$wgEnableUploads = true; # Разрешить загрузку файлов

Чтобы отключить загрузку файлов установите значение параметра в false:

$wgEnableUploads = false; # Запретить загрузку файлов
Версия MediaWiki: 1.4

В старых версия MediaWiki параметр включения/отключения загрузки файлов также расположен в LocalSettings.php , но имеет обратное название, т.е $wgDisableUploads. со значением по-умолчанию:

$wgDisableUploads = true; # Запретить загрузку файлов

Измените значение для разрешения загрузки:

$wgDisableUploads = false; # Разрешить загрузку файлов

Using a central repository

InstantCommons is a feature, enabled with a configuration change, which gives you immediate access to the millions of free (freely licensed) files in Wikimedia Commons.

Ограничение загрузки файлов

По-умолчанию, все зарегистрированные пользователи могут загружать файлы.

Чтобы ограничить это - измените значение параметра $wgGroupPermissions:

  • Запретить обычным пользователям загружать файлы:
    $wgGroupPermissions['user']['upload'] = false;

$wgGroupPermissions['user']['upload'] = false;

  • Разрешить загружать файлы только членам созданной группы «uploadaccess»:
    $wgGroupPermissions['uploadaccess']['upload'] = true;

$wgGroupPermissions['uploadaccess']['upload'] = true;

  • Разрешить «подтверждённым» (не новичкам) пользователям загружать файлы:
    $wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['upload'] = true;

$wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['upload'] = true;

Право заменять существующие файлы даётся разрешением - reupload:

  • Запретить обычным пользователям заменять существующие файлы:
    $wgGroupPermissions['user']['reupload'] = false;

$wgGroupPermissions['user']['reupload'] = false;

  • Разрешить «подтверждённым» (не новичкам) пользователям заменять существующие файлы:
    $wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['reupload'] = true;

$wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['reupload'] = true;

If a ForeignFileRepo is set, the right to replace those files locally is handled by an special permission, called reupload-shared:

  • To prevent normal users from overriding filerepo files locally:
    $wgGroupPermissions['user']['reupload-shared'] = false;
  • To allow "autoconfirmed" (non-newbie) users to replace filerepo files locally:
    $wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['reupload-shared'] = true;

Для детальной информации о правах пользователей смотрите Help:User rights и Manual:Preventing access - для получения информации об ограничении доступа.

Настройка типов файлов

Чтобы разрешить загрузку какого-либо типа файлов, добавьте его расширение в $wgFileExtensions. К примеру, параметр $wgFileExtensions может выглядеть так

$wgFileExtensions = array( 'png', 'gif', 'jpg', 'jpeg', 'doc',
    'xls', 'mpp', 'pdf', 'ppt', 'tiff', 'bmp', 'docx', 'xlsx',
    'pptx', 'ps', 'odt', 'ods', 'odp', 'odg'


$wgFileExtensions = array_merge( $wgFileExtensions,
    array( 'doc', 'xls', 'mpp', 'pdf', 'ppt', 'xlsx', 'jpg', 
        'tiff', 'odt', 'odg', 'ods', 'odp'


# Добавление новых типов файлов к уже существующим в DefaultSettings.php
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'docx';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'xls';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'pdf';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'mpp';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'odt';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'ods';

However, certain file extensions are blacklisted ($wgFileBlacklist ) and cannot be uploaded even if added to $wgFileExtensions. To upload files with blacklisted extensions, you must modify the blacklist. For instance, to allow users to upload executables:

$wgFileExtensions[] = 'exe';
$wgFileBlacklist = array_diff( $wgFileBlacklist, array ('exe') );

In addition, $wgMimeTypeBlacklist prevents certain file types based on MIME type; .zip files, for example, are prohibited based on MIME type (MediaWiki version 1.14 up to 1.17).

Вы также можете установить

$wgStrictFileExtensions = false;
$wgStrictFileExtensions = false;

для разрешения загрузки большинства файлов. Ограничение будет продолжать действовать на некоторые запрещённые типы файлов (см. загрузка файлов - не изображений)..

  Внимание: Setting $wgStrictFileExtensions to false, or altering $wgFileBlacklist could result in either you or your users being exposed to security risks.

Если вы получаете ошибку "The file is corrupt or has an incorrect extension", убедитесь что определение MIME типов работает корректно.

If you decide to allow any kind of file, make sure your mime detection is working and think about enabling virus scans for uploads .

To enable zip extension (tested in MediaWiki v1.19.23) the following will be necessary in the LocalSettings.php file:

$wgFileExtensions[] = 'zip';
// $wgTrustedMediaFormats[] = 'ARCHIVE';
$wgTrustedMediaFormats[] = 'application/zip';

Log in

By default anonymous uploads are not allowed. You must register and log in before the upload file link appears in the toolbox.


Для получения информации об автоматической генерации миниатюр, смотрите Manual:Image_thumbnailing.

For problems with thumbnailing, see Image Thumbnails not working and/or appearing.

Версия MediaWiki: 1.11

If the file is not visual (like an Image or Video) a fileicon is used instead. These are generated by the iconThumb() function in the File class in the FileRepo group. Icons stored in "$wgStyleDirectory/common/images/icons/" in a "fileicon-$extension.png"-format.

Максимальный размер загружаемого файла

Browsers tell the server the size of the file to be uploaded before it actually sends the file.

If the upload is too big, it is rejected by the target (server) and the upload fails providing multiple errors depending at which layer the limit was imposed:

  • If it's a server limit (nginx, Apache) on the maximum amount of transmitted data, it may simply fail with a HTTP 500 error or HTTP 413 – Request entity too large.
  • If the limit it's at the PHP level, if post_max_size is hit, you may get a generic HTTP 500 error (or simply a blank page) otherwise, MediaWiki should give a more meaningful error message.
post_max_size and upload_max_filesize in php.ini

По умолчанию настройки php.ini ограничивает размер загружаемых файлов до 2 мегабайт (и максимальный размер операции отправки до 8 мегабайт). Если необходимо загрузить файл большего размера, измените параметр post_max_size в php.ini[1] и upload_max_filesize[2].

Для этого могут потребоваться права администратора - если же ваш сайт находится на стороннем сервере, обратитесь к техподдержке хостинга.

If you are increasing the maximum upload filesize to a value greater than 100MB, you will need to add $wgMaxUploadSize with the new upload filesize value to LocalSettings.php .
Locating the php.ini file
Typical location in which php.ini may be found.

The location of the php.ini file varies on the distribution you are using. (Try "locate php.ini" or "php -i" to find the location of your config file.) [3]

It is important to change the php.ini file in the apache2 folder. For example, there may be a core default php.ini at /etc/php5/cli/php.ini as well as one at /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini. If you are using mod_php (most common), the most likely location for the correct php.ini file is in /etc/php5/apache2 or /etc/php/7.0/apache2. For php-fastcgi, edit /etc/php5/cgi/php.ini.

Multiple websites hosted on a server

If you have more than one website hosted on a server and want to change only for MediaWiki, insert into your /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/ inside <Virtual Host>:

php_value upload_max_filesize 100M
php_value post_max_size 100M

Both above settings also work in a .htaccess file if your site uses mod_php. If your site uses PHP >= 5.3 and allows it, you can place php.ini directives in .user.ini files instead.

web server limits

Your web server may impose further limits on the size of files allowed for upload. For Apache, one of the relevant settings is LimitRequestBody. [4] For Nginx, client_max_body_size is the relevant setting.[5] For Lighttpd, server.max-request-size is what may need modification.[6]

After editing your php.ini or web server configuration, you will need to restart Apache or IIS.

Ubuntu 16.04: sudo service apache2 restart

You may also need to restart php5-fpm after altering your PHP (or ngingx server?) configuration.

(sudo /etc/init.d/php5-fpm restart in Linux, for example.)

uploading too large of files warning

MediaWiki покажет предупреждение, если вы попытаетесь загрузить файл, размером превышающем установленный лимит в параметре $wgUploadSizeWarning. Это ограничение не зависит от жёсткого лимита PHP.

This is independent of the hard limit imposed by PHP.

temporary upload limits

Temporary changes to upload limits (when using multiple wikis on a farm, for example) can be altered by adding the lines:

ini_set( 'post_max_size', '50M' );
ini_set( 'upload_max_filesize', '50M' );

to the MediaWiki LocalSettings.php configuration file for each wiki. In this example the PHP limit is set at 50 Mb. Note that these settings will not override the maximum settings set above (since the core php.ini and apache2 php.ini files set the absolute maximum). This method sets maximums that are less than the absolute maximum.

IIS7 лимит загруки
By default, IIS7[7] on Windows 2008 allows only 30MB to be uploaded via a web application. Larger files will return a 404 error after the upload. If you have this problem, you can solve it by increasing the maximum file size by adding the following code to <system.webServer> in the web.config file:
    <requestLimits maxAllowedContentLength="50000000" />

With the above maxAllowedContentLength, users can upload files that are 50,000,000 bytes (50 MB) in size. This setting will work immediately without restarting IIS services. The web.config file is located in the root directory of your web site.

To allow uploading files up to 2G:

add the following lines to LocalSettings.php:

$wgUploadSizeWarning = 2147483647;
$wgMaxUploadSize = 2147483647;

Also, modify the following lines in php.ini :

memory_limit = 2048M (this line may not be necessary)
post_max_size = 2048M
upload_max_filesize = 2048M

In the IIS web.config file, override the value of maxRequestLength. For example, the following entry in web.config allows files that are less than or equal to 2 gigabytes (GB) to be uploaded:

<httpRuntime maxRequestLength="2097151" executionTimeout="18000"/>

With IIS 7, you also need to configure it to allow large uploads. This is found by clicking “Request Filtering > Edit Feature Settings” in the IIS section in the middle of the window. Set the ”Maximum allowed content length (Bytes)” field to 2147482624. If you don’t see "Request Filtering" in the IIS section, it needs enabled via Internet Information Services > World Wide Web Services > Security in the "Turn Windows features on or off" area in Control Panel.

If the above tip does not enable large uploads, then open a command prompt and execute this command as well:

%windir%\system32\inetsrv\appcmd set config -section:requestFiltering -requestLimits.maxAllowedContentLength: 2147482624

Allowing Java JAR Uploads

By default, MediaWiki will scan all uploads that appear to be ZIP archives and reject any that contain Java .class files. This is a security measure to prevent users uploading a malicious Java applet. For non-public sites only, use the following to disable this check:

$wgAllowJavaUploads = true;

This setting can be used as a work around for allowing mimetypes to be accepted indiscriminately. For example, if you attempt to upload a .doc file created by Word 2007, no matter the text list you provide and mimetype checking you invoke or prohibit, you will receive the message:

The file is a corrupt or otherwise unreadable ZIP file. It cannot be properly checked for security.

.doc files saved by Word 2007 (and possibly later versions) contain a small embedded ZIP archive storing metadata that is not representable in the binary .doc format as used by earlier versions of Word. This embedded ZIP data confuses the Java archive scanner, causing the .doc file to be rejected. Files in the newer .docx file format are valid ZIP archives in their entirety, and can be uploaded successfully without setting $wgAllowJavaUploads .

Загрузка файлов напрямую с других сайтов

Если вы хотите разрешить пользователям загружать файлы напрямую с других сайтов, вместо копирования файла на локальный компьютер, установите $wgAllowCopyUploads = true

By default, upload by URL are only possible using the API (or extensions such as UploadWizard). To make the option usable from Special:Upload, you need to set $wgCopyUploadsFromSpecialUpload to true as well. On the upload form, you will then see an additional field for the URL, below the usual filename field. The URL field is greyed out per default, but can be activated by activating the radiobutton (checkbox) to the left of the field.

In order to use this feature, users must have the user right upload_by_url. This right was granted to sysops by default until MediaWiki 1.20 but it now needs to be granted explicitly. To allow this to normal users, set

 $wgGroupPermissions['user']['upload_by_url'] = true;

Keep in mind that allowing uploads directly from an arbitrary location on the web makes it easier to upload random, unwanted material, and it might be misunderstood as an invitation to upload anything that people might come across on the web.

PHP's cURL support must be enabled to support this feature. Configure your PHP when installing using the --with-curl option.
If your server is accessing internet through a proxy then $wgHTTPProxy needs to be set accordingly. Either you supply it directly or, if your server supplies the environment variable "http_proxy" see your phpinfo(), then you could use the following code in your LocalSettings.php:
 * Proxy to use for CURL requests.
if ( isset( $_ENV['http_proxy'] )) $wgHTTPProxy = $_ENV['http_proxy'];

Восстановление изображений

Восстановление изображений стало возможно в MediaWiki 1.8, а, начиная с Mediawiki 1.11, оно активировано по-умолчанию.

В MediaWiki 1.8 восстановление изображений контролируется опцией $wgSaveDeletedFiles с параметрами true и false, соответственно. Начиная с версии 1.11 управление осуществляется параметром $wgFileStore, а удалённые файлы, по-умолчанию, сохраняются в каталоге $wgUploadDirectory/deleted Since version 1.17, $wgFileStore has been deprecated and $wgDeletedDirectory should be used instead.

Mass uploading

A number of tools are available for uploading multiple files in one go rather than each file separately:

Расширение Описание Статус выпуска Требования
Extension:UploadWizard Используется на Wikimedia Commons Стабильный MediaWiki 1.23+
Extension:MsUpload Позволяет пользователю загружать несколько файлов, включая перемещение и удаление файлов. Стабильный 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22
Extension:SimpleBatchUpload Basic, no-frills uploading of multiple files to MediaWiki Стабильный 1.26+
Расширение:MultiUpload В настоящее время не поддерживается Сломанный 1.19+
Commonist (Внешняя ссылка на Wiki Commons) Требуется загрузка файла через api.php.
importImages.php "Разместите файлы на сервере в удобном для чтения месте и выполните maintenance/importImages.php скрипт из командной строки."[8]
User:Nichalp/Upload script
Commons:File upload service/Script Устаревший
User:File Upload Bot (Kernigh)

Upload directory

Whenever an image is uploaded, several things are created:

  1. An article in the file namespace with the name of the file, e.g. File:MyPicture.png. This page is stored and can be edited like any other page.
  2. The file itself is stored into the folder on the file system, which is configured in $wgUploadDirectory or into one if its subfolders (see below).
  3. If thumbnailing is available, thumbnailed versions of the file will be created when necessary (such as for the usage on the file description page. These are stored in the thumb directory of the image directory, in a separate directory for each main file.

If $wgHashedUploadDirectory is enabled (by default), MediaWiki creates several subdirectories in the images directory.

If $wgHashedUploadDirectory is set to true, uploaded files will be distributed into sub-directories of $wgUploadDirectory based on the first two characters of the md5 hash of the filename. (e.g. $IP/images/a/ab/foo.jpg) Creation of such subdirectories is handled automatically. This is used to avoid having too many files in one folder because some filesystems don't perform well with large numbers of files in one folder.

If you only maintain a small wiki with few uploaded images, you could turn this off by setting $wgHashedUploadDirectory = false, all images are uploaded in $wgUploadDirectory itself. (e.g. $IP/images/foo.jpg)

Multiwiki sites

  • Make sure you've changed the site location in LocalSettings.php from, e.g. /var/lib/mediawiki to wherever your installation is, and created a writeable images directory (most of the rest can be symlinked).

Not doing so will mysteriously break image uploads.

Configuring the upload form

The upload form message provided with the default MediWiki installation (which appears when you click "Upload file" link or go to Special:Upload link) may not go very well for you.

For that case you can edit MediaWiki:Uploadtext contents and provide your own text. If your wiki site is multilanguage don't forget to edit localized versions like MediaWiki:Uploadtext/de.

On the MediaWiki:Licenses page you can customize a drop-down list of licenses for uploads of your site.

Take into account that localized versions like MediaWiki:Licenses/de won't work by default. To enable them you must configure the $wgForceUIMsgAsContentMsg variable.

Edit MediaWiki:Upload-default-description to add an initial text to the "Summary" field of your upload form (for example your wiki site has a universal template for upload summaries and you want everyone to use that template).

См. также: Upload form changes

Известные проблемы на Windows

Запуск MediaWiki на сервере Windows имеет некоторые ограничения в разрешенных именах файлов из-за ошибки PHP.

PHP не может корректно обрабатывать имена файлов с не-ascii-символами, а MediaWiki будет отказываться загружать файлы, содержащие такие символы, чтобы предотвратить прерывистую загрузку (задача T3780), с сообщением «This wiki does not support filenames with special characters. .

Since MediaWiki 1.31 MediaWiki can handle filenames with non-ascii characters if it's using PHP 7.1 or later.

Известные проблемы с именами баз данных, которые являются non-alphanumeric символами

If $wgDBname contains non-alphanumeric characters, uploads may fail with errors like Could not create directory "mwstore://local-backend/local-public/<path>".. This is caused by an internal check for valid container name for file backend, but it's constructed using $wgDBname.

Since MediaWiki 1.26, it allows uploads when $wgDBname contains dots.

См. также


  1. post-max-size, руководство по PHP.
  2. upload-max-filesize, руководство по PHP.
  3. For an example of where the php.ini file is, see Where is php.ini located?.
  4. core - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4 - LimitRequestBody Directive, Apache manual
  5. client_max_body_size, Nginx manual
  6. server.max-request-size, Lighthttpd manual
  7. IIS7 is a new revision (version 7.0) of the Internet Information Services that is part of Windows Vista and the next Windows Server version.