Extension:ConfirmEdit

This page is a translated version of the page Extension:ConfirmEdit and the translation is 19% complete.
此扩展随附于MediaWiki 1.18及更高版本。 因此您无需另外下载。 但是,您仍需遵循此页面提供的其他使用说明。
MediaWiki扩展手册
ConfirmEdit
发行状态: 稳定版
实现 页面操作
描述 为页面保存和其他用户操作添加验证码
作者
  • Brooke Vibber
  • Florian Schmidt
  • Sam Reed
最新版本 1.6.0 (持續更新)
兼容性政策 快照跟随MediaWiki发布。 master分支不向后兼容。
MediaWiki >= 1.42
许可协议 GNU通用公眾授權條款2.0或更新版本
下載
  • $wgAllowConfirmedEmail
  • $wgCaptchaBadLoginExpiration
  • $wgCaptchaTriggersOnNamespace
  • $wgCaptchaStorageClass
  • $wgCaptchaSessionExpiration
  • $wgCaptchaRegexes
  • $wgCaptchaWhitelistIP
  • $wgCaptchaWhitelist
  • $wgCaptchaTriggers
  • $wgCaptchaBadLoginPerUserAttempts
  • $wgCaptchaBadLoginPerUserExpiration
  • $wgCaptcha
  • $wgCaptchaBadLoginAttempts
  • skipcaptcha
季度下載量 199 (Ranked 36th)
正在使用的公开wiki数 957 (Ranked 278th)
前往translatewiki.net翻譯ConfirmEdit扩展
Vagrant角色 confirmedit
問題 开启的任务 · 报告错误

通过ConfirmEdit扩展,您可以使用各种不同的验证码技术,尝试去阻止那些垃圾訊息機器人和其他自动化工具去编辑您的wiki,以及去挫败那些试图猜测密码的自动登录。

ConfirmEdit配备了多种生成验证码的技术/模块。

模块 描述 阻止垃圾邮件的效果
SimpleCaptcha 用户必须解决一道简单的数学题。
FancyCaptcha 用户必须识别以风格化方式显示的一系列字符。
MathCaptcha 用户必须解决一个以图像显示的数学问题。
QuestyCaptcha 用户必须从管理员定义的一系列问题中回答一个问题。 非常高,直至破裂
ReCaptcha NoCaptcha 用户将看到一个基于JavaScript的人性检查。如果检查失败,就会出现一个谜题。 中-低
hCaptcha 与reCAPTCHA类似,但可以说比reCAPTCHA更有效,因为它采用了不同的无障碍验证码方法 未知
Turnstile Cloudfrare Turnstile. Human actionless (or just clicking the box) bot detector. Unknown

其中一些模块需要额外的设置工作:

  • MathCaptcha需要使用TeX扩展,对于MediaWiki版本在1.17之后的,还需要再加上Math 扩展;
  • FancyCaptcha需要在Python中运行一个初步设置脚本。

缺点

验证码会降低可访问性并给真人用户带来不便。

They also are not 100% effective against bots, and they will not protect your wiki from spammers who are willing and able to use human labor to get through the CAPTCHAs. You may wish to use ConfirmEdit in conjunction with other anti-spam features. Regardless of the solution you use, if you have a publicly-editable wiki it's important to keep monitoring the "Recent changes" page.

安裝

ConfirmEdit may not work if used with a MediaWiki version different from the one specified when downloading via the "Extension distributor".
  • 下载文件,并将其放置在您extensions/文件夹中的ConfirmEdit目录内。
    开发者和代码贡献人员应从Git安装扩展,输入:cd extensions/
    git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/mediawiki/extensions/ConfirmEdit
  • 将下列代码放置在您的LocalSettings.php 的底部:
    wfLoadExtension( 'ConfirmEdit' );
    
  • Enable the CAPTCHA type which should be used
  • Configure as needed
  •   完成 – 在您的wiki上导航至Special:Version,以验证已成功安装扩展。


使用Vagrant安装:

  • 如果使用Vagrant ,请通过vagrant roles enable confirmedit --provision安装

验证码类型

There are numerous different CAPTCHA types included with ConfirmEdit.

QuestyCaptcha

This module presents a question and the user supplies the answer. You provide the questions in the configuration. This module has proven to offer a strong mechanism against spambots; it should also have the advantage of better accessibility, as textual questions can be read by text-to-speech software allowing visually impaired users (but not bots) to answer correctly.

Add the following to LocalSettings.php to enable this CAPTCHA, editing the Q&A:

wfLoadExtensions([ 'ConfirmEdit', 'ConfirmEdit/QuestyCaptcha' ]);

// Add your questions in LocalSettings.php using this format:
$wgCaptchaQuestions = [
	'What is the capital of France?' => 'Paris',
	'What is the capital of Spain' => 'MADRID', // Answers are case insensitive
	'What is the name of this wiki?' => $wgSitename, // You can use variables
	'How many fingers does a hand have?' => [ 5, 'five' ], // A question may have many answers
];

It will randomly choose a question from those supplied.

最小值为1。

  • QuestyCaptcha is case-insensitive. If the answer is "Paris" and the user writes "paris", or if the answer is "paris" and the user writes "Paris", it will still work.
  • If the answer has a special character like "ó", you may write an answer with "ó" and another with "o" (where "o" replaces "ó"), just in case. For example, if the answer is "canción" you can use [ 'cancion', 'canción' ] in case the user writes "cancion".
  • The answer must be easy to guess for a human interested in your wiki, but not by an automatic program. Ideally, it should not be contained in the text of the question; you can try and edit the captcha help messages and provide the solution to the captcha response there.[1]
  • Just change the questions when/if they start proving ineffective; this may never happen if your wiki is not specifically targeted.
  • Don't ever reuse questions already used by you or others in the past: spambots are known to remember a question and its answer forever once they broke it.
  • You can even dynamically generate questy captchas in the configuration. DO NOT use an exact copy of the dynamic questions from the link, they've been cracked by spammers. However, other dynamic questions in the style of the questions presented are highly effective.
  • There is a separate extension to ConfirmEdit called QuestyCaptchaEditor which provides an on-wiki special page for managing QuestyCaptcha question+answer(s) pairings. You may wish to consider installing it if it's desirable to reduce sysadmin intervention when it comes to managing the CAPTCHA questions and their answers.

ReCaptcha (NoCaptcha)

  警告: ReCaptcha has been cracked by most spambots targeting wikis, mainly due to its accessible captcha alternative.

The new generation of ReCaptcha, called NoCaptcha, was introduced by Google back in December 2014 and reduces the need for humans to solve a CAPTCHA.[2]Based on a user-side JavaScript (which can't be controlled by the user the administrator), reCaptcha tries to identify the site user as a human by analyzing their browsing behavior on the page. The user then has to click an "I'm not a robot" checkbox and (in the best case) doesn't have to do anything further to prove they're a human. However, in some cases, the user still has to solve a CAPTCHA image.

ReCaptcha will not work with the Mobile Source Editor and some extensions.

This module implements the new ReCaptcha NoCaptcha solution in ConfirmEdit.

You still need a public and a secret key (which you can retrieve from the ReCaptcha admin panel – change v2, v3 not work) and install the plugin with:

wfLoadExtensions([ 'ConfirmEdit', 'ConfirmEdit/ReCaptchaNoCaptcha' ]);
$wgReCaptchaSiteKey = 'your public/site key here';
$wgReCaptchaSecretKey = 'your private key here';

There is an additional configuration option for this module, $wgReCaptchaSendRemoteIP (default: false), which, if set to true, sends the IP address of the current user to a server from Google while verifying the CAPTCHA. You can improve the privacy for your users if you keep this set to false. However, remember, that this module adds a client side JavaScript code, directly loaded from a server from Google, which already can collect the IP address of the user (combined with other data, too) and can not be limited by a configuration option. This will only work on standard MediaWiki editor.

reCAPTCHA v3

Currently there is no official way to implement version 3 of Google reCAPTCHA.

SimpleCaptcha (calculation)

  警告: This type is used by very few wikis outside WMF if any, probably because of scarce effectiveness.
 
A simple math question

This is the default CAPTCHA.

This module provides a simple addition or subtraction question for the user.

Add the following lines to LocalSettings.php in the root of your MediaWiki to enable this CAPTCHA:

$wgCaptchaClass = 'SimpleCaptcha';

Note that the display of a trivial maths problem as plaintext yields a captcha which can be trivially solved by automated means; as of 2012, sites using SimpleCaptcha are receiving significant amounts of spam and many automated registrations of spurious new accounts. Wikis currently using this as the default should therefore migrate to one of the other CAPTCHAs.

FancyCaptcha

  警告: This type is used by very few wikis outside WMF if any, probably because of scarce effectiveness.
 

This module displays a stylized image of a set of characters.

Pillow must be installed in order to create the set of images initially, but isn't needed after that (can be installed with pip install Pillow in most environments).

  1. Add the following lines to LocalSettings.php in the root of your MediaWiki installation:
    wfLoadExtensions([ 'ConfirmEdit', 'ConfirmEdit/FancyCaptcha' ]);
    $wgCaptchaClass = 'FancyCaptcha';
  2. In LocalSettings.php, set the variable $wgCaptchaDirectory to the directory where you will store Captcha images. Note: use the absolute directorypath or relative to your wiki's installation directory Below it set $wgCaptchaSecret to your passphrase.
  3. Create the images by running the following:
    python /path/to/captcha.py --font=<font> --wordlist=<wordlist> --key=<key> --output=<output> --count=<count>
    • where font is a path to some font, for instance AriBlk.TTF.
    • wordlist is a path to some word list, for instance /usr/share/dict/words. (Note: on Debian/Ubuntu, the 'wbritish' and 'wamerican' packages provide such lists. On Fedora, use the 'words' package)
    • key is the exact passphrase you set $wgCaptchaSecret to. Use quotes if necessary.
    • output is the path to where the images should be stored (defined in $wgCaptchaDirectory).
    • count is how many images to generate.
    • An example, assuming you're in the extensions/ConfirmEdit directory (font location from Ubuntu 6.06, probably different on other operating systems):
    python captcha.py --font=/usr/share/fonts/truetype/freefont/FreeSans.ttf --wordlist=/usr/share/dict/words --key=FOO --output=../../../captcha --count=100
    • If you are not satisfied with the results of the words you've generated you can simply remove the images and create a new set. Comic_Sans_MS_Bold.ttf seems to generate relatively legible words, and you could also edit the last line of captcha.py to increase the font size from the default of 40.
  4. Put the images you get into captcha directory in your installation.
  5. Edit your wiki's LocalSettings.php : specify full path to your captcha directory in $wgCaptchaDirectory and secret key you've been using while generating captures in $wgCaptchaSecret.
$wgCaptchaDirectory = "/.php-data/my-wiki.org/wiki/captcha";
$wgCaptchaDirectoryLevels = 0; // Set this to a value greater than zero to break the images into subdirectories
$wgCaptchaSecret = "FOO"; // Same value you used in --key option in captcha.py

See also wikitech:Generating CAPTCHAs for how Wikimedia Foundation does it.

How to avoid common problems running Python on Windows
  1. Install the most recent version of Pillow.
  2. Make the installation of Python on a short folder name, like C:\Python\
  3. Create a folder like C:\Ex and place files CAPTCHA.py / FONT.ttf / LIST.txt into the folder.
  4. To execute easily, run the following example as a batch file:
C:\python\python.exe C:\Ex\CAPTCHA.py --font C:\Ex\FONT.ttf --wordlist C:\Ex\LIST.txt --key=YOURPASSWORD --output C:\Ex\ --count=20

MathCaptcha

  警告: This type is used by very few wikis outside WMF if any, probably because of scarce effectiveness.
This requires the Math extension to be installed.

This module generates an image using TeX to ask a basic math question.

Set the following to enable this CAPTCHA:

wfLoadExtensions([ 'ConfirmEdit', 'ConfirmEdit/MathCaptcha' ]);

See the README file in the math folder to install this captcha.

hCaptcha

MediaWiki版本:
1.35
Currently, only the master version or version 1.35 of ConfirmEdit officially supports hCaptcha. A [1] is available for MediaWiki 1.31–1.34, but it is not official. Use it at your own risk.

The configuration is similar to ReCaptcha:

wfLoadExtensions([ 'ConfirmEdit', 'ConfirmEdit/hCaptcha' ]);
$wgHCaptchaSiteKey = 'your public/site key here';
$wgHCaptchaSecretKey = 'your private key here';

$wgHCaptchaSendRemoteIP is also available.

Turnstile

MediaWiki版本:
1.41
Currently only available in master branch of the extension.

The configuration is similar to #ReCaptcha or #hCaptcha:

wfLoadExtensions([ 'ConfirmEdit', 'ConfirmEdit/Turnstile' ]);
$wgTurnstileSiteKey= 'your public/site key here';
$wgTurnstileSecretKey= 'your private key here';

$wgTurnstileSendRemoteIP is also available.

配置

Don't require CAPTCHA from some users

ConfirmEdit introduces a 'skipcaptcha' permission type to wgGroupPermissions . This lets you set certain groups to never see CAPTCHAs. All of the following can be added to LocalSettings.php.

Defaults from ConfirmEdit.php:

$wgGroupPermissions['*']['skipcaptcha'] = false;
$wgGroupPermissions['user']['skipcaptcha'] = false;
$wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['skipcaptcha'] = false;
$wgGroupPermissions['bot']['skipcaptcha'] = true; // registered bots
$wgGroupPermissions['sysop']['skipcaptcha'] = true;

To skip captchas for users that confirmed their email, you need to set both:

$wgGroupPermissions['emailconfirmed']['skipcaptcha'] = true;
$wgAllowConfirmedEmail = true;

Set actions that require CAPTCHA

The following conditions can trigger a CAPTCHA to be displayed:

  • 'edit' - triggered on every attempted page save
  • 'create' - triggered on page creation
  • 'sendemail' - triggered when using Special:Emailuser
  • 'addurl' - triggered on a page save that would add one or more URLs to the page
  • 'createaccount' - triggered on creation of a new account
  • 'badlogin' - triggered after several failed login attempts from the same IP address
  • 'badloginperuser' - triggered after several failed login attempts using the same username

The default values for these are:

$wgCaptchaTriggers['edit'] = false;
$wgCaptchaTriggers['create'] = false;
$wgCaptchaTriggers['sendemail'] = false;
$wgCaptchaTriggers['addurl'] = true;
$wgCaptchaTriggers['createaccount'] = true;
$wgCaptchaTriggers['badlogin'] = true;
$wgCaptchaTriggers['badloginperuser'] = true;

The triggers edit, create and addurl can be configured per namespace using the $wgCaptchaTriggersOnNamespace setting. If there is no $wgCaptchaTriggersOnNamespace for the current namespace, the normal $wgCaptchaTriggers apply. So suppose that in addition to the above $wgCaptchaTriggers defaults we configure the following:

$wgCaptchaTriggersOnNamespace[NS_TALK]['addurl'] = false;
$wgCaptchaTriggersOnNamespace[NS_PROJECT]['edit'] = true;

Then the CAPTCHA will not trigger when adding URLs to a talk page, but on the other hand user will need to solve a CAPTCHA any time they try to edit a page in the project namespace, even if they aren't adding a link.

URL和IP白名单

It is possible to define a whitelist of known good sites for which the CAPTCHA should not kick in, when the 'addurl' action is triggered.

Sysop users can do this by editing the system message page called MediaWiki:Captcha-addurl-whitelist.

The expected format is a set of regex's one per line.

Comments can be added with # prefix.

You can see an example of this usage on OpenStreetMap.

This set of whitelist regexes can also be defined using the $wgCaptchaWhitelist config variable in LocalSettings.php, to keep the value(s) a secret.

Some other variables you can add to LocalSettings.php:

  • $wgCaptchaWhitelistIP - List of IP ranges to allow to skip the CAPTCHA (you can also use MediaWiki:Captcha-ip-whitelist; see below for details).
  • $ceAllowConfirmedEmail - Allow users who have confirmed their e-mail addresses to post URL links

These are described more thoroughly in the code comments

MediaWiki:Captcha-ip-whitelist can be used to change the whitelisted IP addresses and IP ranges on wiki.

They should be separated by newlines.

If any other character (apart from a valid IP address or range) is found on a line, it will be ignored but leading and trailing whitespace characters are allowed.

For example, a line with only 127.0.0.1 is considered valid but #127.0.0.1 will be ignored.

正则表达式

The global variable wgCaptchaRegexes accepts an array of regexes to be tested against the page text and will trigger the CAPTCHA in case of a match.

Failed login attempts

When using the badlogin or badloginperuser triggers, the following configuration variables control how many failed login attempts per-IP and per-user are allowed before a CAPTCHA is required, and how long it takes until the CAPTCHA requirement expires:

$wgCaptchaBadLoginAttempts = 3;
$wgCaptchaBadLoginExpiration = 300; // 300 seconds = 5 minutes
$wgCaptchaBadLoginPerUserAttempts = 20;
$wgCaptchaBadLoginPerUserExpiration = 600; // 600 seconds = 10 minutes

The triggers require $wgMainCacheType to be set to something other than CACHE_NONE in your LocalSettings.php, if in doubt the following will always work.

$wgMainCacheType = CACHE_ANYTHING;

Note that these triggers not trigger CAPTCHAs on API login, but instead block them outright until the CAPTCHA requirement expires.

Wikimedia configuration

For example, Wikimedia Foundation wikis use FancyCaptcha with a custom set of images and the default configuration, modified by what follows.

$wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['skipcaptcha'] = true;

This means only unregistered and newly registered users have to pass the CAPTCHA.

EmergencyCaptcha mode

Additionally the shortcut named $wmgEmergencyCaptcha is designed for use in a limited number of emergency situations, for instance in case of massive vandalism or spam attacks: it changes the default trigger values (see above) into the following:

$wgCaptchaTriggers['edit'] = true; 
$wgCaptchaTriggers['create'] = true;

So all anonymous and new users have to solve a CAPTCHA also before being able to save an edit or create a new page, in addition to the normal situation.

速率限制

ConfirmEdit supports rate limiting for false CAPTCHA.

For more information about $wgRateLimits and how to set it up, read Manual:$wgRateLimits , the action key is badcaptcha.

作者

The basic framework was designed largely by Brion Vibber, who also wrote the SimpleCaptcha and FancyCaptcha modules.

The MathCaptcha module was written by Rob Church.

The QuestyCaptcha module was written by Benjamin Lees.

Additional maintenance work was done by Yaron Koren.

参考资料

  1. MediaWiki:Questycaptchahelp-text, MediaWiki:Questycaptcha-edit, MediaWiki:Questycaptcha-addurl, MediaWiki:Questycaptcha-create, MediaWiki:Questycaptcha-createaccount
  2. Google Blog Are you a robot? Introducing “No CAPTCHA reCAPTCHA” ()

参见