扩展:Scribunto

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此扩展已绑定在MediaWiki 1.34及以上版本 因此您不需要再次下载。 然而,您仍需要跟随提供的其他指示。
MediaWiki扩展手册
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Scribunto
发布状态: 稳定版
实现 解析器扩展
描述 提供在 MediaWiki 页面里嵌入脚本语言的框架
作者
  • Victor Vasiliev
  • Tim Starling
以及其他
最新版本 持续更新
兼容性方针 发行分支
PHP 5.5+
许可协议 GPL-2.0-or-later AND MIT
下载
Module
  • $wgScribuntoDefaultEngine
  • $wgScribuntoSlowFunctionThreshold
  • $wgScribuntoGatherFunctionStats
  • $wgScribuntoUseGeSHi
  • $wgScribuntoUseCodeEditor
  • $wgScribuntoEngineConf
翻译Scribunto扩展如果在translatewiki.net可用
检查使用和版本矩阵。
问题 开放的工作 · 报告错误

Scribunto (Latin: "they shall write/let them write (in the future)") 扩展可以在MediaWiki软件中嵌入脚本。

目前唯一被支持的脚本语言是 Lua

许可协议

该扩展包含使用GNU通用公共许可证v2.0或更高版本(GPL-2.0+)的代码以及使用MIT许可证(MIT)的代码。

需求

PCRE版本兼容性

推荐使用PCRE 8.33+。 You can see the version of PCRE used by PHP by viewing a phpinfo() web page, or from the command line with the following command:

php -r 'echo "pcre: " . ( extension_loaded( "pcre" ) ? PCRE_VERSION : "no" ) . "\n";'

CentOS 6 and RHEL 6 are stuck on PCRE 7 and need to be upgraded.

Updating to 8.33 on a server with an older version may be relatively complicated. 更多细节在Updating to PCRE 8.33 or Higher

PHP pcntl (LTS)

MediaWiki版本: 1.25 – 1.28

Scribunto versions for MediaWiki 1.25 to 1.28 required PHP's pcntl extension, which is only available on Unix/Linux platforms, if you want to use "LuaStandalone" (i.e. running in a separate child process). 在针对MediaWiki 1.29发布的Scribunto中这个依赖被移除.

You can check whether pcntl support is enabled by viewing a phpinfo() web page, or from the command line with the following command:

php -r 'echo "pcntl: " . ( extension_loaded( "pcntl" ) ? "yes" : "no" ) . "\n";'

PHP mbstring extension

PHP needs to have the mbstring extension enabled.

You can check whether mbstring support is enabled by viewing a phpinfo() web page, or from the command line with the following command:

php -r 'echo "mbstring: " . ( extension_loaded( "mbstring" ) ? "yes" : "no" ) . "\n";'

Lua binary

Bundled binaries

Scribunto comes bundled with Lua binary distributions for Linux (x86 and x86-64), Mac OS X Lion, and Windows (32- and 64-bit).

Scribunto should work for you out of the box if:

  1. Your web server is run on one of the above platforms.
  2. PHP's proc_open function is not restricted[1]
  3. Your web server is configured to allow the execution of binary files in the MediaWiki tree.
  注意: Execute permissions may need to be set; for example, in Linux use
chmod a+x /path/to/extensions/Scribunto/includes/engines/LuaStandalone/binaries/lua5_1_5_linux_64_generic/lua
If you are using SELinux in "Enforcing" mode on your server, you might need to set a proper context for the binaries. Example for RHEL/CentOS 7:
chcon -t httpd_sys_script_exec_t /path/to/extensions/Scribunto/includes/engines/LuaStandalone/binaries/lua5_1_5_linux_64_generic/lua

Additional binaries

Additional Lua binary distributions, which may be needed for your web server if its operating system is not in the list above, can be obtained from http://luabinaries.sourceforge.net/ or from your Linux distribution. Only binary files for Lua 5.1.x are supported. Once you've installed the appropriate binary file on your web server, configure the location of the file with:

# where lua is the name of the binary file
# e.g. sourceforge LuaBinaries 5.1.5 - Release 2 name the binary file lua5.1
$wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['luaPath'] = '/path/to/binaries/lua5.1';

Note that you should not add the above line unless you've confirmed that Scribunto's built-in binaries don't work for you.

Installation

  • 如果使用Vagrant ,请通过vagrant roles enable scribunto --provision安装
手动安装
  • 下载文件,并将其放置在您extensions/文件夹中的Scribunto目录内。
  • 将下列代码放置在您的LocalSettings.php的底部:
    wfLoadExtension( 'Scribunto' );
    $wgScribuntoDefaultEngine = 'luastandalone';
    
  • Set execute permissions for the Lua binaries bundled with this extension:
chmod a+x /path/to/extensions/Scribunto/includes/engines/LuaStandalone/binaries/yourOS/lua
  • Set type to httpd_sys_script_exec_t if SELinux is enforced:
chcon -t httpd_sys_script_exec_t /path/to/extensions/Scribunto/includes/engines/LuaStandalone/binaries/yourOS/lua
  •   完成 – 在您的wiki上导航至Special:Version,以验证扩展已成功安装。

致使用MediaWiki 1.29或更早版本的用户:

上面的说明介绍的是安装此扩展的新方法,它使用wfLoadExtension()。 如果您需要在早期版本(MediaWiki 1.29和更早版本)中安装此扩展,而不是wfLoadExtension( 'Scribunto' );,您需要使用:

require_once "$IP/extensions/Scribunto/Scribunto.php";

Optional Installation

Integrating extensions

For a more pleasant user interface, with syntax highlighting and a code editor with autoindent, install the following extensions:

(MediaWiki 1.30 or earlier)Then in your LocalSettings.php after all the extension registrations, add:

$wgScribuntoUseGeSHi = true;
$wgScribuntoUseCodeEditor = true;

Lua 沙盒

We have developed a PHP extension written in C called LuaSandbox. It can be used as an alternative to the standalone binary, and will provide improved performance. See LuaSandbox for details and installation instructions.

If you initially installed the extension to use the Lua standalone binary, be sure to update LocalSettings.php with $wgScribuntoDefaultEngine = 'luasandbox';.

Configuration

The following configuration variables are available:

$wgScribuntoDefaultEngine
Select the engine. Valid values are the keys in $wgScribuntoEngineConf, which by default are 'luasandbox' or 'luastandalone'.
$wgScribuntoUseGeSHi
When 扩展:语法高亮 is installed, set this true to use it when displaying Module pages.
$wgScribuntoUseCodeEditor
When 扩展:代码编辑器 is installed, set this true to use it when editing Module pages.
$wgScribuntoEngineConf
An associative array for engine configuration. Keys are the valid values for $wgScribuntoDefaultEngine, and values are associative arrays of configuration data. Each configuration array must contain a 'class' key naming the ScribuntoEngineBase subclass to use.

LuaStandalone

The following keys are used in $wgScribuntoEngineConf for Scribunto_LuaStandaloneEngine. Generally you'd set these as something like

$wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['key'] = 'value';
luaPath
Specify the path to a Lua interpreter.
errorFile
Specify the path to a file, writable by the web server user, where the error and debugging output from the standalone interpreter will be logged.
Error output produced by the standalone interpreter are not logged by default. Configure logging with:
$wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['errorFile'] = '/path/to/file.log';
memoryLimit
Specify the memory limit in bytes for the standalone interpreter on Linux (enforced using ulimit).
cpuLimit
Specify the CPU time limit in seconds for the standalone interpreter on Linux (enforced using ulimit).
allowEnvFuncs
Set true to allow use of setfenv and getfenv in modules.

LuaSandbox

The following keys are used in $wgScribuntoEngineConf for Scribunto_LuaSandboxEngine. Generally you'd set these as something like

$wgScribuntoEngineConf['luasandbox']['key'] = 'value';
memoryLimit
Specify the memory limit in bytes.
cpuLimit
Specify the CPU time limit in seconds.
profilerPeriod
Specify the time between polls in sections for the Lua profiler.
allowEnvFuncs
Set true to allow use of setfenv and getfenv in modules.

Usage

Scripts go in a new namespace called Module. Each module has a collection of functions, which can be called using wikitext syntax such as:

 {{#invoke: Module_name | function_name | arg1 | arg2 | arg3 ... }}

Lua

Learning Lua

Lua is a simple programming language intended to be accessible to beginners. For a quick crash-course on Lua, try Learn Lua in 15 Minutes.

The best comprehensive introduction to Lua is the book Programming in Lua. The first edition (for Lua 5.0) is available online and is mostly relevant to Lua 5.1, the version used by Scribunto:

The reference manual is also useful:

Lua environment

In Lua, the set of all global variables and functions is called an environment.

Each {{#invoke:}} call runs in a separate environment. Variables defined in one {{#invoke:}} will not be available from another. This restriction was necessary to maintain flexibility in the wikitext parser implementation.

The environment which scripts run in is not quite the same as in standard Lua. These differences are noted in Extension:Scribunto/Lua reference manual.

Debug console

 
Debug console usage example
See also: Extension:Scribunto/Debug console

When editing a Lua module a so called "debug console" can be found underneath the edit form. In this debug console Lua code can be executed without having to save or even create the Lua module in question.

Troubleshooting

 
Troubleshooting using the clickable "Script error" link.

Note that red 脚本错误 messages are clickable and will provide more detailed information.

Lua错误:内部错误:解释器已退出,状态为1。

When using the LuaStandalone engine (this is the default), errors along the lines of "Lua错误:内部错误:解释器已退出,状态为1。" may be generated if the standalone Lua interpreter cannot be executed or runs into various runtime errors. To obtain more information, assign a file path to $wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['errorFile']. The interpreter's error output will be logged to the specified file, which should prove more helpful in tracking down the issue. The information in the debug log includes debugging information, which is why there is so much of it. You should be able to ignore any line beginning with "TX" or "RX".

Lua错误:内部错误:解释器已退出,状态为2。

When using the LuaStandalone engine (this is the default), status 2 suggests memory allocation errors, probably caused by settings that allocate inadequate memory space for PHP or Lua, or both. Assigning a file path to $wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['errorFile'] and examining that output can be valuable in diagnosing memory allocation errors.

Increase PHP allocation in your PHP configuration; add the line memory_limit = 200M. This allocation of 200MB is often sufficient (as of MediaWiki 1.24) but can be increased as required. Set Scribunto's memory allocation in LocalSettings.php as a line:

$wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['memoryLimit'] = 209715200; # bytes

Finally, depending on the server configuration, some installations may be helped by adding another LocalSettings.php line

$wgMaxShellMemory = 204800; # in KB

Note that all 3 memory limits are given in different units.

Lua错误:内部错误:解释器已退出,状态为24。

When using the LuaStandalone engine (this is the default), status 24 suggests CPU time limit errors, although those should be generating a "The time allocated for running scripts has expired" message instead. It would be useful to file a task in Phabricator and participate in determining why the XCPU signal isn't being caught.

Lua错误:内部错误:解释器已退出,状态为126。

When using the LuaStandalone engine (this is the default), errors along the lines of "Lua错误:内部错误:解释器已退出,状态为126。" may be generated if the standalone Lua interpreter cannot be executed. This generally arises from either of two causes:

  • The lua executable file's permissions do not include Execute. Set permissions as described under #Installation.
  • The server does not allow execution of files from the place where the executable is installed, e.g. the filesystem is mounted with the 'noexec' flag. This often occurs with shared hosted servers. Remedies include adjusting $wgScribuntoEngineConf['luastandalone']['luaPath'] to point to a Lua 5.1 binary installed in an executable location, or adjusting or convincing the shared host to adjust the setting preventing execution.

Error condition such as: Fatal exception of type MWException

Check the MediaWiki, PHP, or webserver logs for more details on the exception, or temporarily set $wgShowExceptionDetails to true.

version `GLIBC_2.11' not found

If the above gives you errors such as "version `GLIBC_2.11' not found", it means the version of the standard C library on your system is too old for the binaries provided with Scribunto. You should upgrade your C library, or use a version of Lua 5.1 compiled for the C library you do have installed. To upgrade your C library, your best option is usually to follow your distribution's instructions for upgrading packages (or for upgrading to a new release of the distribution, if applicable).

If you copy the lua binaries from Scribunto master (or from gerrit:77905), that should suffice, if you can't or don't want to upgrade your C library. The distributed binaries were recently recompiled against an older version of glibc, so the minimum is now 2.3 rather than 2.11.

Lua errors in Scribunto files

Errors here include:

  • attempt to index field 'text' (a nil value)
  • Lua error in mw.html.lua at line 253: Invalid class given:

If you are getting errors such these when attempting to use modules imported from WMF wikis, most likely your version of Scribunto is out of date. Upgrade if possible; for advanced users, you might also try to identify the needed newer commits and cherry-pick them into your local installation.

preg_replace_callback(): Compilation failed: unknown property name after \P or \p at offset 7

preg_replace_callback(): Compilation failed: unknown property name after \P or \p at offset 7

  • this usually indicates an incompatible version of PCRE; you’ll need to update to >= 8.10
  • @todo: link to instructions on how to upgrade

Lua error

If you copy templates from Wikipedia and then get big red "Lua error: x" messages where the Scribunto invocation (e.g. the template that uses {{#invoke:}}) should be, that probably means that you didn't import everything you needed. Make sure that you tick the "Include templates" box at w:Special:Export when you export.

When importing pages from another wiki, it is also possible for templates or modules in the imported data to overwrite existing templates or modules with the same title, which may break existing pages, templates, and modules that depend on the overwritten versions.

Blank screen

Make sure your extension version is applicable to your MediaWiki version.

Design documents

其他页面

参见

General
  • Lua Wikibase client - functionality for the Scribunto extension.
  • commons:Commons:Lua - there may be specific notes for using Lua modules on Wikimedia Commons, including additional Lua extensions installed (e.g. for local support of internationalization and for parsing or playing medias). Some general purpose modules may be reused in other wikis in various languages (except specific tunings for policies, namespaces or project/maintenance pages with dedicated names). If possible, modules that could be widely reused across wikis should be tested and internationalized on Commons.
  • wikipedia:Help:Lua - there may be specific notes for using Lua modules on (English) Wikipedia, including additional Lua extensions installed (including for integrating Wikidata and Wikimedia Commons contents, generating complex infoboxes and navigation boxes, or to facilitate the general administration/maintenance of the wiki contents under applicable policies). Some other localized Wikipedia editions (or other projects such Wiktionnary, Wikisource or Wikinews) may also have their own needs and Lua modules.
  • wikidata:Help:Lua - there may be specific notes for using Lua modules on Wikidata, including additional Lua extensions installed (e.g. for local support of internationalization and for database queries)
Extensions

注释

  1. i.e. proc_open is not within the array of disable_functions in your server's "php.ini" file.