메뉴얼:미디어위키 스킨 만드는 방법

This page is a translated version of the page Manual:How to make a MediaWiki skin and the translation is 100% complete.

스킨 만들기는 미디어위키의 내부 작업에 익숙해지고 위키미디어 운동에 기여를 시작하는 좋은 방법입니다! CSS, JavaScript, JSON 등의 프런트엔트에 익숙하다면 미디어위키 스킨을 만들 수 있습니다! PHP에 대해 알 필요는 없지만 고급 작업을 하고싶다면 도움이 될 수 있습니다.

필수는 아니지만, LESS CSS에 익숙하다면 도움이 될 것입니다. 이 튜토리얼에서는 미디어위키의 작동 버전이 설치되어 있고, 현재 개발 릴리스를 실행하고 있다고 가정합니다.

If you having an existing skin using the PHP BaseTemplate, this guide is not for you. Please see Manual:How to make a MediaWiki skin/Migrating SkinTemplate based skins to SkinMustache instead.

Preparation

Skin development will be a lot easier with a familiarity with Mustache templates.

At minimum, you should be familiar with the following Mustache basics described in the example below:

{{ str }} <!-- renders escaped string -->
{{{ html-str }}} <!-- renders RAW HTML -->

<!-- accesses data inside an associative array of the form { 'key' => 'hello' } -->
{{#array-data}} 
{{ key }} <!-- renders hello -->
{{/array-data}}

<!-- for boolean values -->
{{#is-talk-page}}
<!-- conditional rendering if is-talk-page is true -->
{{/is-talk-page}}

A skin is responsible for the rendering of user-visible content - the HTML inside the BODY tag. It is restricted from editing anything inside the HEAD. Code will be automatically generated for the skin, so that the skin can focus on presentation. If you need to modify the HEAD this is considered outside the scope of the skin, please use Hooks, extensions or configuration to do that see the FAQ for best practices on how to do that.

시작해 봅시다!

첫번째 스킨 제작을 시작하기 위한 두가지 옵션을 권장합니다.


옵션 1 - 스킨 예제를 포크

예제 스킨 https://github.com/wikimedia/mediawiki-skins-Example 은 스킨 구현의 뼈대를 제공합니다. 스킨 폴더의 리포지토리를 포크하여 폴더가 "Example"인지 확인한 후 LocalSettings.php에 다음을 추가하십시오.

wfLoadSkin( 'Example' );

만약에 당신의 위키에 당신의 스킨을 계획하기 위해 당신의 위키의 Special:Preferences 페이지에서 사용할 수 있게 되었습니다.

옵션 2 스킨 랩을 사용하기

The skins lab tool allows you to setup a skin with basic CSS and templates. 마음이 편안해지면 'ZIP으로 다운로드'를 클릭하면 스킨에 필요한 보일러 플레이트가 정리됩니다. 레포지토리 탐색이 쉬워집니다. 당신이 ZIP place 를 다운로드하면 MediaWiki 스킨 폴더에서 LocalSettings.php을 업데이트하십시오.

wfLoadSkin( 'FolderName' );

제대로 진행되었다면 위키의 Special:Preferences 페이지에서 스킨을 이용할 수 있어야 합니다.

Option 3 - From the command line

cd mediawiki/skins

npm install mediawiki-skins-cli

npx create-mw-skin SkinName

cd SkinName

When you have downloaded the ZIP place it in your MediaWiki skins folder and update LocalSettings.php with the following:

wfLoadSkin( 'SkinName' );

사람들에게 알려줍니다!

스킨을 만드는겄은 다른 사람들과 함께 하는 것이 더 재미있을 것이고 훨씬 더 쉬워질 것입니다! 사용 가능한 항목이 있으면 GitHub 또는 게릿 에 게시하는 것을 고려하십시오. Once the code is publicly available, you should create a skin page (make sure you change the title!) to let people know you are open for collaboration!

위키 페이지를 설정하면 다른 많은 좋은 점이 있습니다. You'll be able to handle bug reports in Phabricator or GitHub issues and receive patches from other volunteers in the MediaWiki community. 누군가 번역을 도와줄 수 있어야 합니다.

Mustache

미디어위키 1.35에서 Mustache 지원이 추가되었습니다. We found using Mustache to be very helpful in the development of the Skin:Minerva and Skin:Vector skins as it allows you to separate data from presentation. Mustache를 사용하여 템플릿을 재사용할 수 있습니다. To use a partial Partial.mustache in MediaWiki, simply add them to the folder you are working in and reference them using {{>Partial}} in the master template `skin.mustache`.

Mustache 템플릿으로 전송되는 데이터는 비교적 유연합니다. If something is missing, you can use PHP to add data by extending the SkinMustache::getTemplateData function.

The SkinJson skin can be added to a MediaWiki development instance, to inspect the data available to skins. Note that arrays are prefixed "array-", booleans are prefixed with "is-" and objects are prefixed "data-" to help you conceptualize the data you are working with.

The data available, and in which MediaWiki versions it is available is documented on Manual:SkinMustache.php.

스킨 번역 가능(i18n)

In skin.json under ValidSkinNames, you can use the `messages` option to define translateable message keys. These keys should correspond to entries inside the i18n/en.json folder. Once registered for the skin, these will be available in your template with a prefix "msg-".

"example": {
	"class": "SkinMustache",
	"args": [ {
			"name": "example",
			"messages": [
				"sitetitle",
				"search",
				"tagline",
				"navigation-heading"
			]
	} ]
}

For example in the example below, the message "sitetitle" can be rendered in a Mustache template using

<p>{{msg-sitetitle}}</p>

See Localisation for more information on why this is important.

Rendering template partials

Template partials can be used to render different parts of the skin and to avoid the problem with having a large unmaintainable skin.mustache file. In the following example, the skin renders the contents of the templates in the 3 files with the filenames Logo.mustache, Content.mustache and Footer.mustache. These files must exist in the same folder as the skin.mustache file or a subfolder of the directory containing skin.mustache.

{{>subfolder/Logo}}
{{>Content}}
{{>Footer}}

Template partials are a great way to break up your skin to make it more readable. No template partials are predefined and available by default, however you can look at existing skins using SkinMustache for inspiration.

Read more about Mustache template partials.

Logo.mustache

Following code block is being used to show the site logo in the Example skin and you will also see the same if you create the skin from the SkinLabs.

<!-- Logo.mustache -->
<div id="p-logo" class="mw-portlet" role="banner">
    <a href="{{link-mainpage}}">
    {{#data-logos}}
        {{#icon}}<img src="{{.}}" width="40" height="40">{{/icon}}
        {{#wordmark}}<img src="{{src}}" width="{{width}}" height="{{height}}">{{/wordmark}}
        {{^wordmark}}<h1>{{msg-sitetitle}}</h1>{{/wordmark}}
    {{/data-logos}}
    </a>
</div>

From the code block mentioned above, the following line is responsible to show the logo `icon`:

{{#icon}}<img src="{{.}}" width="40" height="40">{{/icon}}

This line assumes that, there is a key icon in the array $wgLogos. So in your LocalSettings.php file, if there is a line similar as $wgLogos = [ 'icon' => "$wgResourceBasePath/resources/assets/wiki.png" ];, then the logo/ icon image will be displayed. The default MediaWiki LocalSettings.php exports a 1x key in the $wgLogos array.

So to show the logo you need to update the LocalSettings.php and add a key icon.

If you want to change the logo do not just replace the default logo with a new one in the resources/assets/wiki.png path. Because it will be changed to default, when you update the MediaWiki. The recommended way to change the logo is to add a new logo image file and add that path to the LocalSettings.php.

Rendering menus with Mustache

All menus are structured in the same format (Manual:SkinMustache.php#PortletData). A generic Menu.mustache template partial, added to the same folder as skin.mustache can therefore be used to generate a menu.

<div role="navigation" id="{{id}}" class="{{class}}" title="{{html-tooltip}}"
    aria-labelledby="{{id}}-label">
    <input type="checkbox" aria-labelledby="{{id}}-label" />
    <h3 id="{{id}}-label" {{{html-user-language-attributes}}}>{{label}}</h3>
    <div class="mw-portlet-body">
        <ul {{{html-user-language-attributes}}}>
            {{{html-items}}}
        </ul>
        {{{html-after-portal}}}
    </div>
</div>

However, when using this partial you'll need to tell it which menu to generate HTML for. Inside skin.mustache the following would render the languages and views menu.

{{! Switch template context to data for all menus }}
{{#data-portlets}}
    {{! Access the menu called "languages" }}
    {{#data-languages}}
    {{>Menu}}
    {{/data-languages}}
    {{! Access the menu called "views" }}
    {{#data-views}}
    {{>Menu}}
    {{/data-views}}
{{/data-portlets}}

Disabling the table of contents

In 1.38, you can remove the table of contents from the article body and position it outside the content area. To disable the table of contents generation, add the following to skin.json:

{
    "ValidSkinNames": {
        "notocskin": {
            "class": "SkinMustache",
            "args": [
                {
                   "name": "notocskin",
                   "toc": false
                }
            ]
        }
    }
}

The array-sections template key can be used for rendering the table of contents.


More examples

To see examples of template partials that can be used in your project, you can look through the examples in the Wikimedia skins labs.

스크립트와 스타일

기본값

스킨에는 최소한 단일 스타일 리소스 로더 모듈이 필요합니다. 이렇게 보일 것입니다.: 기능 키를 사용하면 i18n을 비롯한 다양한 작업에 유용한 보일러 플레이트 기본값을 사용할 수 있으며 MediaWiki core php 설명서에 나와 있는 표준화를 수행할 수 있습니다. 기능은 키 목록(opt-in 정책)이거나 1.36의 개체(opt-out 정책)일 수 있습니다. 잘 모를 경우 기능 키를 생략하여 권장 기본값을 사용하십시오. A skin at minimum requires a single style ResourceLoader module defined in your skin's skin.json file. It will look a bit like this:

       "ResourceModules": {
                "skins.example": {
                        "class": "ResourceLoaderSkinModule",
                        "features": { "normalize": true },
                        "styles": [ "resources/skins.example.less" ]
                }
        },

The features key allows you to use useful boiler plate defaults for a variety of things including i18n and normalize which are documented in the MediaWiki core php documentation. Features can be an array of keys (opt-in policy) or in 1.36 an associative array (opt-out policy, recommended). If you are not sure, please omit the features key to use the recommended defaults.

CSS / LESS

The skin.json is a manifest of all the assets your skin uses. Under the `ResourceModules` key you should find the style module for your skin listed under `skins.example`. Here, under the "styles" key you can add LESS or CSS files. They will be loaded in the order they are listed. With LESS you can use @import statements in the same folder. More information about what's possible can be found in ResourceLoader/Developing_with_ResourceLoader.

When using images you should be able to use relative URIs to access the image assets.

Responsive skins / adding a meta viewport

If you are building a responsive skin, make sure to use the responsive skin option when declaring your skin in skin.json.

{
    "ValidSkinNames": {
        "my-responsive-skin": {
            "class": "SkinMustache",
            "args": [
                {
                   "name": "my-responsive-skin",
                   "responsive": true
                }
            ]
        }
    }
}

Making skins compatible with languages that are right-to-left (RTL)

The scripts of certain languages e.g. Hebrew are in right to left rather than left to right. This presents a problem for skin developers, where interfaces are flipped e.g. in Vector the sidebar is on the left rather than the right.

In MediaWiki it's also possible to use a different language for the skin and the content. For example, in Special:Preferences you can set your language to Hebrew while retaining the content in English.

Writing skins that work well in RTL is a large topic out of scope for this document, but if you need to test your skin in RTL you should update LocalSettings.php to change your content language:

$wgLanguageCode = "he";

As a skin developer you should keep in mind two things:

  • Any CSS written for your skin will be flipped automatically via the CSSJanus tool without any work required from you, however you may need to disable some of those transformations (see ResourceLoader/Architecture#Flipping).
  • Any HTML you render that can be translated should be marked up with the dir HTML attribute]. For your convenience SkinMustache provides the html-user-language-attributes template variable which can be used like so:
<div
  {{{html-user-language-attributes}}}
>
</div>

for a user who who has set their language to Hebrew in preferences, produces the following HTML:

<div
  dir="rtl" lang="he"
>
</div>

Images

You can extend Manual:$wgLogos with any data you choose to. This will allow site admins to configure images as they choose, but you must always conditionally render them.

In cases where images must be hardcoded for some reason., and cannot use a CSS background-image, or wgLogos for any reason you will need to extend the data sent to the template

JavaScript

JavaScript code in skins, runs in an environment where you can rely on the `mw` and `jQuery` objects having been loaded. We recommend using ResourceLoader/Package_files which will allow you to require file assets.

For information on the available API and libraries see core JS documentation.

고급 사용

스킨에는 최소한 단일 스타일 리소스 로더 모듈이 필요합니다. 이렇게 보일 것입니다. More advanced information will provided on an as requested basis. Please ask a question on the talk page to accelerate the addition of documentation!

i18n

Messages defined in i18n/en.json can be passed directly to your Mustache template by inclusion in skin.json. Note, that you can use any messages defined inside MediaWiki core.

skin.json i18n/en.json skin.mustache
{
    "ValidSkinNames": {
        "mymustacheskin": {
            "class": "SkinMustache",
            "args": [
                {
                   "name": "mymustacheskin",
                   "messages": [
                        "createaccount"
                    ]
                }
            ]
        }
    }
}
{
        "@metadata": {
                "authors": []
        },
        "skinname-mymustacheskin": "My Mustache Skin",
        "mymustacheskin-hello": "Hello"
}
<div>
    {{msg-mymustacheskin-hello}} <!-- prints hello in the current language -->
</div>

Extending data

The data available is documented on Manual:SkinMustache.php.

If you need to add additional data for rendering inside your skin's template that cannot be served by messages (as in the i18n section) e.g. raw HTML or complex data structures you must use a dedicated PHP class and extend the SkinMustache::getTemplateData method.

<?php

class MySkin extends SkinMustache {
    
    /**
     * Extends the getTemplateData function to add a template key 'html-myskin-hello-world'
     * which can be rendered in skin.mustache using {{{html-myskin-hello-world}}}
     */
    public function getTemplateData() {
        $data = parent::getTemplateData();
        $data['html-myskin-hello-world'] = '<strong>Hello world!</strong>'; // or $this->msg('msg-key')->parse();
        return $data;
    }
}


ResourceLoaderSkinModule 클래스를 통한 기본 스타일링

All skins should define a single style module with the class ResourceLoaderSkinModule. The module defines various default styles to take care of MediaWiki internals. If you want, you can disable these features and provide your own styles. Define features as an empty object to tie yourself into the recommended MediaWiki defaults. A list of support features is provided in our docs.

Example ResourceLoaderSkinModule that disables the logo feature but enables several others:

{
    "skins.vector.styles": {
                        "class": "ResourceLoaderSkinModule",
                        "features": {
                                "normalize": true,
                                "elements": true,
                                "content": true,
                                "logo": false,
                                "interface": true,
                                "legacy": true
                        },
                        "targets": [
                                "desktop",
                                "mobile"
                        ],
                        "styles": [ "resources/skins.vector.styles/skin.less" ]
                }
    }
}

다른 확장과 통합

Extensions should integrate with you, not the other way round! Try to forget about extensions when writing your skin. User:Jdlrobson/Skins for extension developers is provided for extension developers to ensure they get the best compatibility. The starter templates in Manual:How_to_make_a_MediaWiki_skin#Getting_started will render all possible UI elements. If you omit certain pieces of data you may break support with extensions.

For certain extensions you may want to tweak the styles of the default UI elements, notably Extension:Echo. To do this you will need to read Manual:$wgResourceModuleSkinStyles.

체인징 메뉴 컨탠츠

후크를 사용하여 메뉴 구성을 변경할 수 있습니다. 예를 들어, 벡터에서는 SkinTemplateNavigation 후크를 사용하여 시계 모양 아이콘을 재배치합니다. 이렇게 할 때, 다른 스킨에 부작용이 생기지 않도록 수술 중인 피부를 확인하는 것을 잊지 마세요. The composition of menus can be changed by using hooks. For example in Vector, the SkinTemplateNavigation hook is used to relocate the watch star icon. When doing this, remember to check the skin being operated on, to avoid side effects in other skins.

I want to change elements in the head of the HTML page

Skin developers should not concern themselves with modifying anything in the HEAD of a document. Modifications of the HEAD are better served via extensions and configuration inside LocalSettings.php. For any questions please use the

The following links may be helpful:

I am writing an extension that needs to style itself differently depending on the skin

Extensions can make use of skin styles to ship skin-specific styles using the skinStyles key. See Manual:$wgResourceModuleSkinStyles.

Building skins for 1.35

In 1.35 support for building skins was not as straightforward as in 1.36. If you wish to build a skin for 1.35, using template data provided in 1.36, you will need to extend the SkinMustache PHP class. A polyfill for the Example skin is provided.


당신의 피드백은 중요합니다

쉽지 않은 점이 있다면 좀 더 쉽게 해드리고 싶기 때문에 여러분의 피드백이 중요합니다. 문제가 발생하면 Phabricator의 미디어위키 코어 스킨 아키텍처 프로젝트에 버그 보고서를 제출해 주십시오. 그러면 멋진 솔루션을 찾아보겠습니다.

토크 페이지에 자유롭게 질문해 주세요. 바보 같은 질문은 없습니다. If something is not easy, we'd like to make it easier, so your feedback is important. If you run into problems, then please file a bug report in the mediawiki core skin architecture project in Phabricator, and we'll try and find an elegant solution.

Please feel free to ask a question on the talk page. There is no such thing as a stupid question.