Manual:Mencadangkan wiki

This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Backing up a wiki and the translation is 31% complete.

Sangat penting untuk membuat cadangan wiki Anda (data dan berkasnya) secara rutin. Pada halaman ini akan dijelaskan secara umum bagaimana melakukan cadangan data wiki Anda pada MediaWiki; Untuk kebutuhan yang lebih spesifik misalnya cadangan secara periodik, Anda perlu melakukan penyesuaian tersendiri.

Help:Export adalah cara yang cepat dan mudah untuk menyimpan semua halaman di wiki Anda.

Tinjauan

MediaWiki menyimpan data pada dua lokasi, yaitu:

Database
Halaman berikut isinya, pengguna berikut preferensinya, metadata, indeks pencarian, dsb.
File System
Berkas konfigurasi perangkat lunak, skin kustomisasi, ekstensi, gambar (termasuk di dalamnya gambar yang dihapus), dsb.

Pertimbangkan untuk membuat konfigurasi Wiki menjadi read-only saja sebelum melakukan backup - lihat $wgReadOnly . Hal ini akan memastikan data-data dalam proses backup akan konsisten.

Transfer berkas

Anda harus memilih metode untuk mentransfer berkas dari peladen letak mereka.

  • Data yang tidak pribadi bisa diterbitkan di archive.org dan/atau di direktori dumps/ peladen web Anda.
  • SCP (atau WinSCP), SFTP/FTP atau protokol transfer apa pun yang Anda mau.
  • Perusahaan hosting-nya mungkin menyediakan antarmuka manajer berkas lewat penjelajah web; periksa ke penyedia Anda.

Basis data

Mayoritas data kritikal wiki tersimpan di dalam database, berarti dapat disimpulkan bahwa umumnya proses backup akan cukup sederhana. Saat menggunakan MySQL atau MariaDB backend default, database dapat dibuang ke dalam file skrip yang nantinya dapat digunakan untuk membuat ulang database dan semua data di dalamnya dari awal.

MySQL

Automysqlbackup

Lihat paketnya di Debian:

$ apt show automysqlbackup
[...]
Description: automysqlbackup creates backup every day, week and month for all of your MySQL database, to a configured folder. There's nothing to do but to install this package, and you'll rest assured that you have a way to go back in the history of your database.
[...]

Pasang paketnya:

# apt install automysqlbackup

Semua basis data Anda akan disimpan di /var/lib/automysqlbackup/:

$ find /var/lib/automysqlbackup/
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/weekly
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/weekly/my_wiki
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/weekly/my_wiki/my_wiki_week.18.2016-05-07_15h32m.sql.gz
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/monthly
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/daily
/var/lib/automysqlbackup/daily/my_wiki

Pencadangan manual:

# automysqlbackup

Mengembalikan basis data:

gunzip < /var/lib/automysqlbackup/weekly/my_wiki/my_wiki_week.18.2016-05-07_15h32m.sql.gz|mysql -uUSER -pPASSWORD my_wiki

Untuk distribusi lainnya, lihat di Sourceforge.

Mysqldump from the command line

Contoh perkakas adalah mysqldump yang merupakan aplikasi command-line. Aplikasi ini dapat menghasilkan sebuah berkas dump dari sebuah database. Kustomisasi dapat dilakukan dengan menambahkan opsi. Misalnya kustomisasi format karakter encoding berkas keluaran.

Contoh perintah yang dapat Anda jalankan dari crontab adalah sebagai berikut:

$wgReadOnly = 'Dumping Database, Access will be restored shortly';

this can be removed as soon as the dump is completed.

Example of the command to run on the Linux/UNIX shell:

mysqldump -h hostname -u userid -p --default-character-set=whatever dbname > backup.sql

Mengganti hostname, userid, whatever, dan dbname yang sesuai. All four may be found in your LocalSettings.php (LSP) file. hostname may be found under $wgDBserver ; by default it is localhost. userid may be found under $wgDBuser , whatever may be found under $wgDBTableOptions , where it is listed after DEFAULT CHARSET=. If whatever is not specified mysqldump will likely use the default of utf8, or if using an older version of MySQL, latin1. While dbname may be found under $wgDBname . After running this line from the command line mysqldump will prompt for the server password (which may be found under Manual:$wgDBpassword in LSP).

See mysqldump for a full list of command line parameters.

The output from mysqldump can instead be piped to gzip, for a smaller output file, as follows

mysqldump -h hostname -u userid -p dbname | gzip > backup.sql.gz

Some newer versions of MySQL might show an error about tablespaces and PROCESS privilege. MediaWiki does not use tablespaces. The solution is to add the --no-tablespaces option to the command:

mysqldump --no-tablespaces -h hostname -u userid -p dbname | gzip > backup.sql.gz

A similar mysqldump command can be used to produce XML output instead, by including the --xml parameter.

mysqldump -h hostname -u userid -p --xml dbname > backup.xml

and to compress the file with a pipe to gzip

mysqldump -h hostname -u userid -p --xml dbname | gzip > backup.xml.gz

Remember to also backup the file system components of the wiki that might be required, e.g., images, logo, and extensions.

Running mysqldump with Cron

Cron is the time-based job scheduler in Unix-like computer operating systems. Cron enables users to schedule jobs (commands or shell scripts) to run periodically at certain times or dates.

A sample command that you may run from a crontab may look like this:

nice -n 19 mysqldump -u $USER --password=$PASSWORD $DATABASE -c | nice -n 19 gzip -9 > ~/backup/wiki-$DATABASE-$(date '+%Y%m%d').sql.gz

The nice -n 19 lowers the priority of the process.

Use valid values for $USER, $PASSWORD, and $DATABASE. This will write a backup file with the weekday in the filename so you would have a rolling set of backups. If you want to save the files and extensions as well, you might want to use this one.

  Peringatan Jangan mencoba melakukan backup basisdata MediaWiki menggunakan mysqlhotcopy. Format tabel yang digunakan MediaWiki tidak dapat dibackup menggunakan perkakas ini. Tidak akan ada pemberitahuan mengenai kegagalan backup menggunakan perkakas ini!


If you want to add this task in Cron through Cpanel then you must escape the character "%"

/usr/bin/mysqldump -u $USER --password=$PASSWORD $DATABASE -c | /bin/gzip > ~/backup/wiki-$DATABASE-$(date '+\%Y\%m\%d').sql.gz

or you will get an error:

/bin/sh: -c: line 0: unexpected EOF while looking for matching `''
/bin/sh: -c: line 1: syntax error: unexpected end of file

Tabel

Beberapa dari tables yang dibuang memiliki derajat temporal yang berbeda. Jadi untuk menghemat ruang disk (tidak hanya melakukan gzip), walaupun tabel tersebut perlu ada dalam dump yang baik, data mereka tidak. Namun, dalam kondisi tertentu kerugian dari harus membangun ulang semua data ini adalah dapat lebih penting daripada menghemat ruang disk (misalnya, pada wiki yang besar kecepatan restorasi menjadi penting).

Lihat arsip diskusi pada milis thread mengenai topik ini.

Latin-1 to UTF-8 conversion

See the relevant section of the upgrading page for information about this process. Also see the talk page for more information about working with character sets in general.

PostgreSQL

You can use the pg_dump tool to back up a MediaWiki PostgreSQL database. For example:

pg_dump mywiki > mywikidump.sql

will dump the mywiki database to mywikidump.sql.

To restore the dump:

psql mywiki -f mywikidump.sql

You may also want to dump the global information, e.g. the database users:

pg_dumpall --globals > postgres_globals.sql

SQLite

If your wiki is currently offline, its database can be backed up by simply copying the database file. Otherwise, you should use a maintenance script: php maintenance/sqlite.php --backup-to <backup file name>, which will make sure that operation is atomic and there are no inconsistencies. If your database is not really huge and server is not under heavy load, users editing the wiki will notice nothing but a short lag. Users who are just reading will not notice anything in any case.

phpMyAdmin

Turn your wiki to read only by adding $wgReadOnly = 'Site Maintenance'; to LocalSettings.php.

Open the browser to your phpadmin link, login, choose the wiki database. (Check LocalSettings.php if you're not sure). Select Export. Make sure all items under Export are highlighted, and make sure Structure is highlighted (it's important to maintain the table structure). Optionally check Add DROP TABLE to delete existing references when importing. Make sure Data is checked. Select zipped. Then click on GO and save the backup file.[1]Remove $wgReadOnly = 'Site Maintenance'; from LocalSettings.php

Remember to also backup the file system components of the wiki that might be required, e.g. images, logo, and extensions.

External links

HeidiSQL

HeidiSQL is similar to phpMyAdmin, but without any restrictions of phpMyAdmin's free version. HeidiSQL requires a direct database connection, where some hosts may only offer web interfaces (phpMyAdmin) to firewalled databases.

File system

MediaWiki menyimpan komponen lain dari wiki di dalam sistem berkas. Contohnya adalah berkas konfigurasi situs (LocalSettings.php , AdminSettings.php (akhirnya dihapus di 1,23)), file gambar (termasuk gambar yang dihapus, thumbnail dan gambar matematika dan SVG yang diberikan, jika ada), penyesuaian skin, file ekstensi, dll.

Metode yang terbaik untuk membackup berkas-berkas ini adalah dengan menempatkan mereka sebagai berkas archive seperti .tar. Bagi pengguna sistem operasi Windows, dapat menggunakan aplikasi WinZip atau 7-zip.

Jika menggunakan XAMPP, backup seluruh folder "wiki" di dalam "htdocs".

  tar zcvhf wikidata.tgz /srv/www/htdocs/wiki

It should be possible to backup the entire "wiki" folder in "htdocs" if using XAMPP.

Cadangkan konten wiki (XML dump)

Merupakan ide yang bagus untuk membuat dump XML selain melakukan dump basisdata. Di dalam XML terdapat isi dari wiki (halaman wiki berikut dengan revisinya), tanpa data-yang-terkait (tidak terdapat akun user, metadata gambar, log, dsb). Dump XML independen terhadap struktur basisdata, dan dapat diimport ke versi MediaWiki yang lebih baru atau lebih lama.

XML dumps are less likely to cause problems with character encoding, as a means of transferring large amounts of content quickly, and can easily be used by third party tools, which makes XML dumps a good fallback should your main database dump become unusable.

To create an XML dump, use the command-line tool dumpBackup.php , located in the maintenance directory of your MediaWiki installation. See Manual:dumpBackup.php for more details.

You can also create an XML dump for a specific set of pages online, using Special:Export, although attempting to dump large quantities of pages through this interface will usually time out.

To import an XML dump into a wiki, use the command-line tool importDump.php . For a small set of pages, you can also use the Special:Import page via your browser (by default, this is restricted to the sysop group). As an alternative to dumpBackup.php and importDump.php, you can use MWDumper, which is faster, but requires a Java runtime environment.

See Manual:Importing XML dumps for more information.

Without shell access to the server

If you have no shell access, then use the WikiTeam Python script dumpgenerator.py from a DOS, Unix or Linux command-line. Requires Python v2 (v3 doesn't yet work, although a third-party Python 3.x port has been created).

To get an XML, with edit histories, dump and a dump of all images plus their descriptions. Without extensions and LocalSettings.php configs.

python dumpgenerator.py --api=http://www.sdiy.info/w/api.php --xml --images

Full instructions are at the WikiTeam tutorial.

See also Meta:Data dumps.

Script

  Peringatan Use these at your own risk. Check your wiki's LocalSettings.php for the correct character set to use, as you may need to edit the script to suit.
  • Unofficial web-based backup script, mw_tools, by Wanglong (allwiki.com); you can use it to back up your database, or use the backup files to recover the database, the operation is very easy.
  • WikiTeam tools - if you do not have server access (e.g. your wiki is in a free wikifarm), you can generate an XML dump and an image dump using WikiTeam tools (see some saved wikis).
  • Another backup script that: dumps DB, files (just pictures by default, option to include all files in installation), and XML; puts the site into read-only mode; timestamps backups; and reads the charset from LocalSettings.

Script does not need to be modified for each site to be backed up. Does not (yet) rotate old backups. Usage: backup.sh -d backup/directory -w installation/directory. Also provides a script to restore a backup restore.sh -a backup/directory/dated_archive.tar.gz -w installation/directory.

  • Another unofficial MediaWiki backup script for Windows by Lanthanis that: exports the pages of specified namespaces as an XML file; dumps specified database tables; and adds further specified folders and files to a ZIP backup file.

Can be used with Windows task scheduler.

  • Script to make periodical backups mw_backup. This script will make daily, weekly and monthly backups of your database and images directory when run as a daily cron job.

Extensions

Lihat pula

Pranala luar