This page is a translated version of the page Extension:Widgets and the translation is 32% complete.
也请考虑贡献您创建的微件。 感谢您的分享!
MediaWiki扩展手册
Widgets
发行状态: 稳定版
实现 解析器函数
描述 可以通过在Widget命名空间中编辑页面在wiki添加自由类型的微件
作者
维护者 Yaron Koren
最新版本 1.5.0 (2023-11-13)
MediaWiki 1.35+
许可协议 GNU通用公眾授權條款2.0或更新版本
下載
示例 Widgets on MediaWikiWidgets.org
  • $wgWidgetsCompileDir
  • $wgWidgetsUseFlaggedRevs
  • editwidgets
季度下載量 148 (Ranked 44th)
正在使用的公开wiki数 1,122 (Ranked 207th)
前往translatewiki.net翻譯Widgets扩展
Vagrant角色 widgets
問題 开启的任务 · 报告错误

微件扩展允许在普通的wiki页面嵌入原始HTML页面(类似模板)。 您可以通过在Widget命名空间创建页面来完成。 这避免了在可编辑wiki页面中原始HTML的安全性问题,因为在Widget名字空间中进行编辑的权限是受控的。 您可以找到一些预先写好的微件。

下載

要使用Git获取代码,请输入以下命令:

cd extensions
git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/mediawiki/extensions/Widgets.git
cd Widgets
composer update --no-dev

Composer 是一个 PHP 依赖管理工具。对于高于 1.35.2 的 Mediawiki 版本,您需要把 Composer 更新到版本 2。指引见此

安裝

要调用此扩展,将下列代码加入 LocalSettings.php 即可:

wfLoadExtension( 'Widgets' );
文件夹权限

并且,$IP/extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates/ 目录应能被网络服务器改写。 See Making a directory writable by the webserver. The compiled templates folder is where Smarty stores pre-compiled templates.

配置

本节所述的步骤都是可选的——这个扩展即便没有这些更改也能工作,不过当你有个十分复杂的MediaWiki实例,它们能为你提供更多灵活性。

使用FlaggedRevs进行小部件审查

You can use the FlaggedRevs extension to enable a widget security review process. See this version of the documentation for how to integrate the extension.

修改存储已编译的小部件的目录

You can use the $wgWidgetsCompileDir variable to change the directory for storing the compiled widgets ($compile_dir in the code). The default setting is

$wgWidgetsCompileDir = "$IP/extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates/";

If you change the location by setting the parameter with another directory, make sure that it exists and has the correct permissions.

用户权限

This extension adds a namespace called "Widget", but due to potential security implications that can result from using insecure widget code, this namespace is only editable by users who have the editwidgets permission (the widgeteditor group is also created to add users to; see Help:User rights management for more details).

用法

To add a widget to your MediaWiki installation, just create a page in the Widget: namespace. You can then use the {{#widget:...}} parser function to include it in any page in the wiki.

{{#widget}}解析器函数

To add a defined widget to pages, users can use the {{#widget}} parser function. The syntax is as follows:

{{#widget:WidgetName|param1=value1|param2=value2}}

Where WidgetName is a page name in the Widget namespace (e.g. Widget:WidgetName) and param=value pairs are the settable parameters, defined within the widget code.

Parameters can be expanded inside a widget using Smarty syntax, as follows:

<a href="<!--{$param1|escape:'url'}-->"><!--{$param2|escape:'html'}--></a>

The escape options specifies how the parameter will be 'escaped', or encoded, in the resultant Widget. It is critically important that all parameters are escaped to prevent cross-site scripting vulnerabilities. Some escape methods are ineffective. In general you should use one of escape:html, escape:url, escape:urlpathinfo or escape:javascript. See http://www.smarty.net/docsv2/en/language.modifier.escape for more information on this.

Widget名字空间的页面

All widgets in the wiki are defined by creating pages in the special "Widget:" namespace, like e.g. "Widget:WidgetName".

To see all Widgets defined in your system, you can simply go to the page "Special:AllPages", select "Widget" in the namespace dropdown and click "Go".

For security reasons, these pages are only editable by wiki administrators - see User rights above for more info.

You can find many pre-defined widgets to install in your wiki at MediaWikiWidgets.org. 如果你对自行创建微件感兴趣,请见下一节。

小部件页面语法

The Widgets extension uses the Smarty PHP templating engine to provide simple templating functionality within widget pages. 传给微件的所有参数都会转化为Smarty参数。

Important: Use escape modifiers on all passed-in parameters to prevent users from passing in raw HTML from normal wiki pages. 不对此进行防护会使托管网站暴露于XSS(以及其它)攻击。

数组

如果你多次使用同一个参数,微件会得到一个包含这些值的数组。 You can use foreach to go through the array.

布尔值(true/false)

In addition to PHP's default handling of Boolean conversions, you can (unlike in PHP) use the values "true" or "false" to set the Boolean value. The following would set the $popup parameter to false, for example:

{{#widget:WidgetName|popup=false}}

In addition, you can set Boolean parameters to true by just using a parameter name without a value, like this:

{{#widget:WidgetName|popup}}

点符号

Parameter names can have dots, and Smarty will interpret them as associative arrays, so you can use foreach with both key and item attributes to traverse through them, or you can just use the same name with dots if you want to reference the parameter directly.

示例

Widget:AssocTest might look like this:

<includeonly><ul>
<!--{foreach from=$arg key=key item=item}-->
   <li><!--{$key|escape:'html'}-->: set to <!--{$item|escape:'html'}--></li>
<!--{/foreach}-->
</ul></includeonly>

...and you might call this Widget as follows:

{{#widget:AssocTest|arg.foo=bar|arg.bar=oni}}

..which would be displayed as:

  • foo set to bar
  • bar set to oni

验证修饰符

In addition to standard Smarty modifiers (like the heavily used escape), the Widgets extension implements the validate modifier, that uses PHP Data filtering to allow for validating widget parameters. Validating a parameter is not a replacement for escaping a parameter. You should still use an escape modifier even when validating. The following values for the validate are supported (mapping to PHP's validation filters):

  • urlValidate as URL. This allows only URL schemes listed in $wgUrlProtocols, and, unlike PHP validation, does not allow URLs with characters dangerous in HTML.
  • url-php (FILTER_VALIDATE_URL) — Warning: Validating as a URL still allows JavaScript URLs that can lead to XSS. It also allows urls containing characters that are unsafe in HTML.
  • int (FILTER_VALIDATE_INT) — Validates value as integer, optionally from the specified range, and converts to int on success.
  • boolean or bool (FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN) — Returns true for "1", "true", "on" and "yes". Returns false otherwise.
  • float (FILTER_VALIDATE_FLOAT) — Validates value as float, optionally from the specified range, and converts to float on success.
  • email (FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL) — Warning: Valid email address can still contain characters that are unsafe in HTML, be sure to escape in addition to validating
  • ip (FILTER_VALIDATE_IP) — Validates value as IP address, optionally only IPv4 or IPv6 or not from private or reserved ranges.
  • domain (FILTER_VALIDATE_DOMAIN) — Warning: Valid domains can still contain characters that are unsafe in HTML, be sure to escape in addition to validating.
  • mac (FILTER_VALIDATE_MAC) — Validates value as MAC address.

Undefined parameters

If the widget expects a parameter but that parameter remains undefined in the parser function, a PHP error will be thrown. They're hidden by default, but if they're visible on your wiki it might say something like Attempting to read property "value" on null in [...]. One way to prevent an error from showing despite undefined parameters is to add default:'' to widget parameters that are at risk of remaining undefined. For an example see param2 below:

<a href="<!--{$param1|escape:'url'}-->" class="<!--{$param2|default:''|escape:'html'}-->"><!--{$param3|escape:'html'}--></a>

刷新小部件页面

If you're using a call to the widget within the widget page itself, then you will not see the updated widget (and no widget at all when you just created a page). This happens because the page contents are not available to the Widgets extension until a page is saved, but the call to the {{#widget}} parser function is made before the page is saved. After the page is saved, it's cached by MediaWiki, so you won't see the result even if you reload the page via the browser. To make the latest edits to the widget code appear, you need to refresh the page in the cache; to do this, you just need to use the Purge action (see also Purge extension), or wait a certain amount of time (up to 24 hours).

小部件与模板

Placing widgets within templates makes them an invaluable tool for creating complex displays of data with minimal lines of code.

It is particularly helpful if you want to preset some parameters of the widget while allowing users to modify others (e.g. video ID for the YouTube widget or username for the Twitter widget).

作者

The widgets extension was created and designed by Sergey Chernyshev. It is currently maintained by Yaron Koren, who has also contributed to the code base.

Other important contributions have been provided by Alexandre Emsenhuber, Jeroen De Dauw, Joshua Lerner, Majr, Sam Reed and Tim Starling.

版本历史

The Widgets extension is currently at version 1.5.0. See the entire version history.

贡献小部件

If you created a widget and would like to share it, feel free to post it to MediaWikiWidgets.org website and to add a reference to it to the Widget library on this page.

错误和功能请求

If you found a problem, would like to contribute a patch or request a new feature, feel free to open a bug in the Wikimedia bug tracker:

https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/maniphest/task/create/?projects=MediaWiki-extensions-Widgets

故障排除

There are a few common problems that users encounter when they start to use Widgets extension - we'll try to document them here:

  • On a widget page, right after you just created it (or copied from MediaWikiWidgets.org) you see the message:
Warning: Smarty error: unable to read resource: "Widget:<your-widget-name>" /../extensions/Widgets/
smarty/Smarty.class.php on line 1095
This is most likely caused by the widget not yet existing at the moment when the widget page itself is being processed - to solve this simply purge the page, e.g. add &action=purge (or ?action=purge if you have nice URLs) to the URL.
It's also possible that you called the Widget incorrectly. Widget page names are case sensitive and must match the name of the widget you're calling. E.g. don't use {{#widget:Youtube|...}} when the widget is called "Widget:YouTube", or vice versa.
  • If the page doesn't load and you see the following error message in the log file:
PHP Fatal error:  Smarty error: unable to write to $compile_dir '/../extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates'.
Be sure $compile_dir is writable by the web server user. in /../extensions/Widgets/smarty/Smarty.class.php on line 1095,
referer: https://your-wiki.com/Widget:<your-widget-name>
Check if you changed permissions and owner for Smarty to store compiled templates in. See also this post for further details.
  • If your wiki began returning totally white pages or 500 errors when you updated MediaWiki to 1.20 or a later version, try setting the permissions on /../extensions/Widgets/compiled_templates to 777.

小部件库

MediaWikiWidgets.org contains a full library of ready-made widgets, including support for most of the major video sites. Any widget can be used simply by copying over the contents of the page.

To get the most up-to-date list of widgets by purpose, e.g. social media, video, images, etc. click here.

可以被小部件替换的扩展

Let's collect a list of extensions that can be replaced with widgets because all they do is output some HTML/JS/CSS with parameters and simple logic that can be done using Smarty templates.

Maybe someone will come and create a widget for that to simplify deployment. Also, these lists of extensions are a good source for action:

常见问题

How do I get a video to align to the right with the other images?

Use something like this. Note that the ‎<br /> line break tags will have to be added manually. 180px is used for width because that is the default for thumbnails. 150px is used for height because that keeps the same ratio as for the default 350x420.

<div class="thumb tright">
<div class="thumbinner">
{{#widget: YouTube |width=180px |height=150px |id=qRhitIPEr0Y }}<br>
<div class="thumbcaption">
Seeing bad acting sully a good<br>
script can upset some people<br>
who place a high value on<br>
natural-seeming performances.<br>
</div>
</div>
</div>

See also

  • HTML限制 - list of extensions that allow for the inclusion of raw HTML