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Nếu có những đoạn văn bản mà bạn muốn chèn vào nhiều trang khác nhau, tính năng tiêu bản của MediaWiki đáp ứng yêu cầu này (giống như bảng ở bên trên được chèn vào tất cả các trang của không gian tên trợ giúp).

Tạo tiêu bảnEdit

Templates are standard wiki pages whose content is designed to be transcluded (embedded) inside other pages. Templates follow a convention that the name is prefixed with "Template:", assigning it to that namespace; besides this, you can create them like any other wiki page.

The simplest use of templates is as follows. If you create a page called "Template:Welcome" with contents:

Hello! Welcome to the wiki.

you'll have created your first template! If you then insert the code:


in any other page, when that page is viewed the text "Hello! Welcome to the wiki." will appear instead of {{Welcome}}. The template content is "transcluded" into the other page, i.e. it is integrated in the page.

You can then insert {{Welcome}} at any point of any page where you wish to welcome someone. Suppose it is used in 100 pages. If you then change the template contents to:

Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.

and revisit any of the 100 pages where the template was used, you'll see the new text instead of the original one. In this way, you have changed the content of 100 pages without editing them, because the template is transcluded into these pages.

This is the basic mechanism. There are several additional features of transclusion that enrich this mechanism and make templates very useful.

Sử dụng tiêu bảnEdit

Tiêu bản là các trang có thể được sử dụng trong các trang khác theo ba cách:

  • {{Name}} — as described above, this link will be dynamically replaced by the current content of [[Template:Name]] at the time the page with the template link is loaded. The link will remain unchanged in the page's source.
  • {{subst:Tên Tiêu bản}} : chèn mã tiêu bản vào đoạn mã của trang gọi nó sau khi trang này được lưu. Gọi tiêu bản theo cách này khiến trang không thể tự cập nhật khi tiêu bản được thay đổi.
  • {{safesubst:Name}} — this was introduced to allow for substitution that doesn't break transclusion, see w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{msgnw:Tên Tiêu bản}} : khi trang chứa được hiển thị, nội dung mã wikitext của tiêu bản được chèn vào giống như được đặt trong cặp thẻ <nowiki></nowiki>.

In fact, an ordinary wiki page can also be used as a template, simply by specifying the namespace it resides in, so:

  • {{Template:Pagename}} includes [[Template:Pagename]]
  • {{Foo:Pagename}} includes [[Foo:Pagename]]
  • {{:Pagename}} includes [[Pagename]]
    • {{subst::Pagename}} replaces itself with the contents of [[Pagename]]

If no such namespace exists, the full title is assumed to be a template:

  • {{Foo:Bar}} includes [[Template:Foo:Bar]]

Sử dụng tham số trong tiêu bảnEdit

To enrich the mechanism of transclusion, MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to a template when it is transcluded. Parameters allow the template to produce different contents or have different behaviors.

Suppose you wish to insert a little thank you note in the talk page of other users, such as:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for all your effort.
hugs, Me

The thank you note will have a reason (in this case, "all your effort") and a signature ("Me"). Your objective is that any user is able to thank any other user, for any reason whatsoever.

So that the note will look similar everywhere it is used, you can define a template called Template:Thankyou, for example. Although the note should look similar whenever a user thanks another user, its specific contents (i.e. the reason and the signature) will be different. For that reason, you should pass them as parameters. If we ignore the remaining elements to format the box and place the image, the core content of the template will be this:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}

Notice the use of {{{1}}} and {{{2}}}. This is the way to identify, within templates, the parameters that will be passed in when the template is used. Note that, within the template, each parameter is surrounded by three braces: {{{ }}}. This is different from normal template name usage.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a "pipe" character (|). MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to the template in three ways: Anonymously, Numbered, and Named.

Anonymous parametersEdit

To pass in anonymous parameters, list the values of those parameters sequentially:

{{Thankyou|all your effort|Me}}

In this case, the {{Thankyou}} template receives parameters {{{1}}}=all your effort and {{{2}}}=Me, producing:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for all your effort.
hugs, Me

The order in which anonymous parameters are passed in is crucial to its behavior. Reversing the order of the parameters, like so:

{{Thankyou|Me|all your effort}}

would produce this result:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for Me.
hugs, all your effort

Note: identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc) works only with anonymous parameters. If your page identifies any parameter by number or name, as shown below, this method will no longer be available to the template which receives them.

Tiêu bản với tham số vô danhEdit

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Me|1=your friendship}}

This time, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{1}}}=your friendship and {{{2}}}=Me, though they have been supplied in inverse order, and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for your friendship.
hugs, Me

Với tham số được đặt tênEdit

The third way of passing parameters is by name, instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason}}}.
hugs, {{{signature}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for being who you are.
hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

Default valuesEdit

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide them, in this way:


in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}

Since no parameters were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no parameter {{{reason}}} is provided, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any parameter, results in the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for everything.
hugs, Me

Điều khiển sự chèn tiêu bảnEdit

Bạn hãy dùng các thẻ <noinclude><includeonly>.

Bất cứ thứ gì nằm giữa cặp thẻ <noinclude></noinclude> chỉ được xử lý và hiển thị khi trang được xem trực tiếp, không phải khi nó được chèn. Ứng dụng khả dĩ của thẻ này là:

  • Phân loại tiêu bản
  • Liên kết đến các tiêu bản tương tự thuộc các ngôn ngữ khác
  • Giải thích cách sử dụng tiêu bản

Ngược lại là cặp thẻ <includeonly></includeonly>. Bất cứ thứ gì nằm giữa cặp thẻ này chỉ được xử lý và hiển thị khi tiêu bản được chèn vào một trang khác. Các ứng dụng dễ thấy của thẻ này :

  • Khiến tất cả các trang sử dụng tiêu bản được phân loại vào cùng một nhóm. Lưu ý rằng nếu bạn thay đổi thể loại trong một tiêu bản, thể loại của các trang sử dụng nó vẫn không thay đổi cho đến khi các trang đó được sửa chữa.
  • Một số tiêu bản chỉ hiển thị đúng khi nó được chèn vào một trang nào đó

Everything outside <noinclude> and <includeonly> tags is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page.

Tổ chức tiêu bảnEdit

Để tiêu bản có ích, người sử dụng cần tìm thấy và có thể sử dụng nó. Một kĩ thuật đơn giản là ghi lại lời giải thích cùng ví dụ trên trang tiêu bản.

To find them, users can:

  1. Click Special pages > All pages
  2. In the Namespace: list, choose Template and click Go.

Ví dụ:

==Cách sử dung==
Hiển thị một lời cảm ơn đến người bạn của bạn:
{{Thankyou/vi|tất cả,Minh}}

Then, an editor can simply copy and paste the example to use the template.

Copying from one wiki to anotherEdit

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

MediaWiki codeEdit

If you have import rights (Specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Check the box "Include templates".
    • Uncheck the box "Include only the current revision, not the full history".
    • Click "Export".
  2. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates.


An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page ParserFunctions and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

CSS and JavaScript codeEdit

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy them to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  1. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

Đọc thêmEdit

Last modified on 19 April 2014, at 16:18